Your Immune System, How It Works And How Vaccines Damage It

Your Immune System, How It Works And How Vaccines Damage It

“Chronic illnesses are now so common, having a sick child seems to be the “new normal.”Children are supposed to be vibrant, healthy, free of disease.” – Janet Levatin MD, Pediatrician.

The Theory

Medical theory is that if your child is exposed to a weakened version of the disease, he will produce antibodies to that disease and become ‘immune’, so that he will never contract the illness.
At first glance, this sounds like a solid principle, BUT it only focuses on one small aspect of the immune system, the antibodies, and fails to look at all the other functions responsible for protecting your child’s health.

So, how does the immune system work?

The immune system is also made up of the skin, mucous membranes in the nose and throat, ears and eyes, nasal hairs, saliva, the spleen, intestines, tonsils, the thymus gland and even the brain. All of these parts work together in a holistic way to bring about a whole body immunity, which is only in part to do with antibodies.

• The skin acts as a barrier to prevent bacteria entering the body. It also filters out toxins through fever, which is the purpose of a fever when your child is ill.
• The nasal hairs prevent foreign particles from travelling up the nose, and the mucous membranes excrete a substance which is anti-bacterial.
• Tonsils help prevent respiratory diseases and illnesses such as Polio, and saliva contains substances which destroy and neutralise microbes.
• The spleen and intestines, among other organs, deposit fats and vitamins around the body and protect against viral and bacterial invasion.
• The thymus gland produces thymus cells, known as ‘T’ cells, which are antibodies to infection.
• There are various glands (nodes) in the body that drain it of toxins and useless material. For instance, the cervical nodes drain the head, neck and chest.
• The pituitary gland in the brain directs all of the systems above, so if the brain goes wrong, so does the immune system. It sends electrical impulses to all areas of the body, stimulating cell re-generation and muscle growth. These electrical impulses also stimulate the thymus gland – the centre of immune function.

What effect does vaccination have on this immune function?

Vaccination – the act of artificially acquiring a disease so as to become immune to it – is flawed in a number of ways. Firstly, a vaccine contains many hazardous chemicals and not just the viruses to immunise against. These each have their own toxic affect on the body. Secondly, the route of entry is different to a naturally occurring disease. Most natural diseases would enter through the mouth or the nasal cavity, not the skin.
Vaccination breaks the skin with a needle and injects foreign matter into the blood supply.
This bypasses the skin’s role in immune function, as well as the tonsils, the mucous membranes, and so on.

Normally, the body produces extra antibodies after being primed by the tonsils that there is impending infection. Therefore, if the infection takes hold, there will be an army of white blood cells, ready to neutralise the infection.
In the case of vaccination, this infection goes straight to the blood, with no prior build up for the body, and there are no extra immune cells to deal with it.
Also, with vaccination there is more than one disease present (e.g. measles, mumps, rubella all in one), whereas naturally a child would never contract 3 diseases at the same time. This puts additional strain on the immune system.

What problems can this cause?

Injection of vaccine via this unnatural route can use up 70% of the immune system’s resources, instead of the usual 3 to 4% with a wild occurring disease (according to Cynthia Cournoyer, ‘What About Immunizations?’, Dennis Nelson Publishers, 1991).
Because the body has no extra antibodies waiting to counter the vaccine, it can go into overdrive in an attempt to deal with the situation, taking much needed vitamins away from bones and other organs, to use for the production of more antibodies. This means that the other vital systems go short on vitamins, in extreme cases leading to bone fractures caused by the immune response leaching vitamins to cope with the vaccine. This lack of vitamins can also cause bruising and retinal bleeding and haemorrhaging, which is why some vaccine damaged babies have been falsely labelled as ‘shaken baby syndrome’ cases. These type of vaccine injuries are similar to those caused by trauma.

The massive surge of antibodies created by the vaccine can also cause the body to become hypersensitive and this is responsible for the increase in allergies and auto-immune diseases. Allergies are an over-exposure to toxic elements which the body is unable to cleanse itself of.
If the adrenals, which include the pancreas, the pituitary gland and the spleen, become over-stimulated, for instance, by vaccination, this can cause the body to become toxic and unable to regulate itself. This has been linked to heart disease, diabetes, asthma and bronchitis, to name a few. Over-stimulating the adrenals also causes a decrease in circulation of blood round the body, and atrophying of vascular vessels.
It is in this state of dysfunction and chemical overload, from vaccines, pollution, junk food, pharmaceutical drugs and so on, that our bodies become less able to stay healthy.

‘When the body is in its ideal state of harmony, there is no need for “immunity.” In such a state of harmony and balance, the thymus functions properly as the central regulator for the proper digestion of elements and all that is taken into the body is digested and excreted.’ – (Stonebridge Associated Colleges, 2005).

In the time immediately following vaccination, when extra vitamins are being used up to fight the vaccine, this may actually make the person more susceptible to the disease. For instance, in the Merck, Sharp and Dohme LTD product information for HIB vaccine, it states: ‘Cases of Haemophilus B disease may occur in the weeks after vaccination’, and in Lederle Hibtiter information sheet, ‘Cases of HIB disease, although rare, may occur after vaccination.’ This is known as ‘PROVOCATION disease’, i.e. disease caused by vaccine.
Live vaccines are more likely to pass on the disease to their recipient or his close contacts, as the viruses are excreted in urine, faeces and saliva for upto 3 weeks after each shot.
The polio vaccine was changed from the live oral vaccine to part of the injectable, killed 5 in 1, because the only cases of polio in western countries were caused by the vaccine.

Vaccine caused diseases are often more severe than the naturally occurring disease. For instance, ATYPICAL measles, only got by vaccinated children, is much more serious because the vaccine suppresses the child’s rash, which is his means of excreting the toxins, and this leads to the toxins being pushed deeper into the body and affecting the major organs and sometimes the brain, as atypical measles encephalitis.
Vaccine viruses can also attach themselves to cells, organs and brain tissue and cause cancers, disabilities and brain injury, as in the case of a boy who became autistic and had a seizure disorder after his MMR jab at 15 months. Great Ormand Street Children’s Hospital tested him at 13 years of age and found remains of vaccine viruses in the injured parts of his brain. (The Sunday Express, 6 October 2002).
Antibodies to brain tissue have also been found in blood tests of autistic children.

Disease Mutations

Even with inactivated vaccines, it is possible for the killed virus or bacteria to mutate into a different form of the disease. For instance, a 16 year old Canadian girl died of Meningitis B after her boyfriend had been given the Meningitis C vaccine. Lab tests confirmed that the vaccine can mutate into B form and infect both the recipient and his or her close contacts. (Pulse, doctor’s magazine, 20th November 1999).
Large numbers of chronic diseases have evolved in the place of infectious disease, since the introduction of mass vaccination, including ME, Lupus, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Autism (previously known as Kanner Syndrome, discovered by Dr. Kanner in the 1940’s), MS, Ebola virus, AIDS, Lichen Planus, Vulvodynia and other hypersensitivity conditions, not to mention the rife and uncontrollable rates of cancer, heart disease, asthma, eczema and other allergies. Even meningitis was extremely rare before the 20th century.

We are killing ourselves in our quest to ‘prevent’ childhood illness, as mother nature is stronger than man, so tampering with immune function can have disastrous consequences for all.

Vaccines Cause Immune Suppression

Immunostimulation Versus Immunosuppression after Multiple Vaccinations: the Woes of Therapeutic Vaccine Development

Three articles in this issue of Clinical Cancer Research show how multiple vaccinations can lead to immunosuppression. Moreover, two studies in patients show that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant immunostimulant to different kind of vaccines can lead to adverse outcome in terms of relapse-free and overall survival. Modulation of regulatory T-cell activity may be required to overcome this outcome and may be crucial for the successful development of therapeutic vaccines.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):6745–7)

Cancer Patients Injected With Cancer Vaccine Caused ‘Early Melanoma Deaths’

Ninety-seven patients with resected melanoma (stage II-IV) were enrolled, stratified by stage, and randomized to receive a cellular melanoma vaccine with or without GM-CSF. The primary endpoint was delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to melanoma cells. Antibody responses, peripheral leukocyte counts, and survival were also examined.

Results: The GM-CSF arm showed enhanced antibody responses with an increase in IgM titer against the TA90 antigen and increased TA90 immune complexes. This arm also had diminished antimelanoma cell delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Peripheral blood leukocyte profiles showed increases in eosinophils and basophils with decreased monocytes in the GM-CSF arm. These immune changes were accompanied by an increase in early melanoma deaths and a trend toward worse survival with GM-CSF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that GM-CSF is not helpful as an immune adjuvant in this dose and schedule and raise concern that it may be harmful. Based on the discordant findings of an immune endpoint and clinical outcome, the use of such surrogate endpoints in selecting treatments for further evaluation must be done with a great deal of caution.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):7029–35)

Partial CD4 Depletion Reduces Regulatory T Cells Induced by Multiple Vaccinations

Results: Multiple vaccinations, rather than boosting the immune response, significantly reduced therapeutic efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy and were associated with an increased frequency and absolute number of CD3+CD4+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Anti-CD4 administration reduced the absolute number of Treg cells 9-fold. Effector T-cells generated from anti-CD4–treated mice were significantly (P < 0.0001) more therapeutic in adoptive transfer studies than T cells from multiply vaccinated animals with a full complement of CD4+ cells.

Conclusion: These results suggest that CD4+ Treg cells limit the efficacy of multiple vaccinations and that timed partial depletion of CD4+ T cells may reduce suppression and “tip-the-balance” in favor of therapeutic antitumor immunity. The recent failure of large phase III cancer vaccine clinical trials, wherein patients received multiple vaccines, underscores the potential clinical relevance of these findings.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):6881–90)

1 in 5 Americans Suffer From Allergies

If springtime breezes bring you sniffles, you can take comfort in the knowledge that you are not alone.

For reasons that researchers do not fully understand, allergies to pollen, dust, pet dander and food have become more prevalent among Americans in recent decades. Today, one out of every five Americans suffers from allergies, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.

“We don’t know why the incidence of allergies is on the rise,” said Maya Jerath, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine and director of the UNC Allergy and Immunology Clinic.

Nor do researchers understand why an allergy develops in the first place. “That has baffled people and continues to baffle people in this field a lot,” she said.

An allergy is an immune reaction to a harmless substance, such as a pollen grain or peanut protein. Instead of ignoring the substance, the body produces antibodies to mount a fight against it. Allergy symptoms can range from itchy eyes and sneezing to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions.

The causes of allergies remain elusive in part because the immune system’s role is complex, Jerath said. The system must defend the body from countless foreign invaders in food, water and the air around you.

Significantly for allergy sufferers, the immune system must also learn to distinguish particles that are dangerous from those that are not. For most people, this learning occurs during early childhood.

“If it doesn’t get adequate exposure to certain things, those regulatory mechanisms don’t get set up,” Jerath said.

For that reason, some researchers believe that a lack of exposure to microorganisms early in life may precondition a person to allergies. This explanation, called the “hygiene hypothesis,” suggests that growing up surrounded by many other children, dirt or livestock helps the immune system develop a tolerance to harmless irritants.

Source: Physorg.com, by Sara Peach, 24 February 2010.

The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes

A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature. A PubMed search from 1979 to 2013 revealed seventy one (71) documented cases. The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included influenza (21 cases), human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases), hepatitis A or B (8 cases), rabies (5 cases), measles (5 cases), rubella (5 cases), yellow fever (3 cases), anthrax (2 cases), meningococcus (2 cases) and tetanus (2 cases). The vast majority of post-vaccination CNS demyelinating syndromes, are related to influenza vaccination and this could be attributed to the high percentage of the population that received the vaccine during the HI1N1 epidemia from 2009 to 2012. Usually the symptoms of the CNS demyelinating syndrome appear few days following the immunization (mean: 14.2 days) but there are cases where the clinical presentation was delayed (more than 3 weeks or even up to 5 months post-vaccination) (approximately a third of all the reported cases).

In terms of the clinical presentation and the affected CNS areas, there is a great diversity among the reported cases of post-vaccination acute demyelinating syndromes. Optic neuritis was the prominent clinical presentation in 38 cases, multifocal disseminated demyelination in 30, myelitis in 24 and encephalitis in 17. Interestingly in a rather high proportion of the patients (and especially following influenza and human papiloma virus vaccination-HPV) the dominant localizations of demyelination were the optic nerves and the myelon, presenting as optic neuritis and myelitis (with or without additional manifestations of ADEM), reminiscent to neuromyelitic optica (or, more generally, the NMO-spectrum of diseases). Seven patients suffered an NMO-like disease following HPV and we had two similar cases in our Center. One patient with post-vaccination ADEM, subsequently developed NMO.

Overal, the risk of a demyelinating CNS disease following vaccination, although non-negligible, is relatively low. The risk of onset or relapse of CNS demyelination following infections against which the vaccines are aimed to protect, is substantially higher and the benefits of vaccinations surpass the potential risks of CNS inflammation. This does not in any way exempt us from “learning” the lessons taught by the reported cases and searching new and safer ways to improve vaccination techniques and increase their safety profile.

Source: Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 13, issue 3, March 2014.

MODERN CHILDREN ARE SICKER THAN THEY WERE IN THE 1940’s AND 50’s

“In 1947 I was a nursery nurse student working in a nursery for little babies whose mothers needed to work as they were illegitimate and so no fathers were getting a wage.

The babies were very well and very sweet.  There were colds and flu occasionally and scabies now and again.

There was NO asthma, eczema, epilepsy, hyperactivity, cardiac disease or cot death.  Cot death started in 1957 after DPT was started.

You need to be in your 80’s to remember what life was like.  Babies died of pneumonia because the houses were so cold but NOT of the awful diseases they have now.”

Mrs B – Retired Nursery Nurse.

Autoimmune Tissue Scurvy Misdiagnosed as Child Abuse

Abstract
Requests from distressed parents and relatives seeking help after having been falsely accused by doctors of injuring their children are not uncommon. Viraland parasitic infections and vaccines cause an autoimmune disorder, Tissue Scurvy, misdiagnosed as child abuse. This report presents the evidence. Method. Relevant hospital and laboratory reports of three children were examined for evidence of Tissue Scurvy as the cause of the neurological lesions, fractures, bruises and hemorrhages found on them. Results. In all the cases in which appropriate histories and tests were done there was evidence that the doctors either misinterpreted the laboratory evidence or they were unaware of the significance of abnormal tests suggesting Tissue Scurvy as the cause. Conclusion. Some doctors are unaware of the pathophysiological processes of autoimmunity, haemostasis and osteogenesis and are misdiagnosing vaccine induced Tissue Scurvy, absence of Vitamin C within the cell, as Non-accidental Injury.

Full paper here: http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.cmr.20130206.17.pdf

Source: Michael D Innis, Autoimmune Tissue Scurvy Misdiagnosed as Child Abuse, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 154-157. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20130206.17

Biology Video Explains Benefit of Fever and Childhood Diseases (it is pro-vaccine but interesting). Section starts at minute 33.43

Section on how fever kills viruses and how childhood diseases are ‘vital’. Segment is only tiny but interesting, even if video is pro-vaccine. (VAN does not agree that vaccines are harmless or that antibodies always mean you are immune).

Advertisements
Interview with Dr. Judy Mikovits Discussing the Role Vaccines Play In Autism and Numerous Other Diseases

Interview with Dr. Judy Mikovits Discussing the Role Vaccines Play In Autism and Numerous Other Diseases

Dr. Judy Mikovits Condemns Vaccines ‘Play Role In Autism’

dat

This is damning evidence against vaccines. Here is a description of the video from the interviewer, Candyce Estave.

This is is the most shocking & damming interview I have watched regarding vaccine injury. Released only 1 day ago it should go viral. Dr Judy Mikovits, PhD is a Biochemist, cellular and molecular biologist with over 30 years of scientific expertise. She has directed programs on HIV, cancer, epigenetics, and neuroimmune disease, with a focus on development of novel drug and diagnostic technologies. Dr. Mikovits holds a PhD in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from GeorgeWashington University. Her dissertation was on HIV latency and mechanisms of immune activation in monocytes. Dr. Mikovits was a Postdoctoral Scholar in Molecular Virology at the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity, National Cancer Institute under Dr. David Derse.

Over the past 26 years, she has published 51 scientific papers in peer-reviewed journals, and worked as a government scientist for many years developing viruses and vaccinations. In 2011 when she made a horrifying discovery that was contaminating all vaccinations, she presented her data to government officials and was threatened & told to destroy all her data. When she did not she was jailed, her career systematically destroyed, and a gag order put in place for 4 years threatening that if she spoke out she would be thrown back in jail. That gag order has just lifted, and she’s dumped the government right in it! She speaks about how autism is associated with vaccines, also cancers, chronic fatigue syndrome, alzheimers, auto immune diseases, allergies and more. She discusses how the cocktail of vaccinations pumped into babies mutate to develop months and years down the track into new viruses, cancers and diseases, some they don’t even know about yet. She explains how the viruses injected through vaccines tear open our DNA and insert their own DNA to mutate our genetic makeup and be passed on generation after generation. She has been threatened with a suicide murder cover up, she doesn’t care, she wants it all exposed. The act of the Australian government making vaccinations mandatory is an act of genocide. If your jaw didn’t drop you obviously need to listen to it again. Via Jasmine Yuzwak

Interview with Dr. Judy Mikovits, PhD, 11/22/15 from Candyce Estave on Vimeo.

Vaccination~ by Suzanne Humphries M.D.

Vaccination~ by Suzanne Humphries M.D.

Most of the medical profession claims the issues surrounding vaccination have been “settled long ago, and laid to rest.” After my experiences in the hospital system and thoroughly examining both sides of the vaccination debate, it is clear that that isn’t the case.

Appearing in Issue #42. Order A Copy Today

The history of vaccination is more complicated than most people understand. The anti-vaccine movement is hundreds of years old. It heated up in the 1800s, when parents in the U.K. became fed up with watching their healthy infants and children become ill or die shortly after getting smallpox vaccinations, or later get sick from smallpox anyway. Parents and doctors who refused smallpox vaccines risked losing their homes, furniture and livelihoods if judges ruled against them.

The smallpox vaccines were made from pus scraped off of diseased cows’ belly sores, contaminated with disease matter from a variety of animals (and in some cases, humans). The smallpox vaccine history is not what you think it is, if you think vaccines wiped out smallpox.

Doctors and those administering vaccines are supposed to obtain “informed consent” before vaccinating. Informed consent is not possible, because parents are not given all the information they require to understand the most important issues.

I do not consider it my place to tell anyone whether to vaccinate or not. It is my place to understand as much as I can about vaccines and give people a more complete understanding from which to make their choices. This has never been a priority to the public health services. In fact there is ample documentation that the priority was quite the opposite, and actually to quell “any possible doubts, whether well founded or not” regarding vaccines. That priority has placed many lives in jeopardy, as major problems with vaccination were and are overlooked by vaccine policy makers.

There are many problems with the science that underpins vaccine information. I’ve yet to meet a pediatrician who is informed enough to offer informed consent. Infant immunity has been misunderstood by immunologists, as the immunology literature admits to. Only recently have some important questions been answered about why infant immune systems don’t function like adult ones. There is good reason for the tolerance that an infant has, and the answer is not to interrupt the program with aluminum and vaccines to ramp it up. Doing so is now known to have long-term consequences.

There is a paucity of studies comparing nevervaccinated children with partially or fully vaccinated children. In terms of safety studies, a major issue is that most vaccine studies use another vaccine as the control placebo, or use the background substance of the vaccine. There is a recent study, published in 2012 by Benjamin J. Cowling in Clinical Infectious Diseases, where a true saline placebo was used. That study showed no difference in influenza viral infection between groups, but, astonishingly, it revealed a 5–6 times higher rate of non-influenza viral infections in the vaccinated. It is no small wonder more true placebos are not used in vaccine research.

In the 2012 article “Neonatal outcomes after influenza immunization during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial,” published in the Canadian Medical Association Journal (CMAJ), we see a clear example of how false placebos are regularly used. Needless to say, giving untested vaccines which can be unknowingly contaminated, and with unproven effectiveness, is a “medical experiment,” and in my opinion, violates the core principles of the Nuremberg Code (informed and unambiguous consent). Most vaccines have never undergone carcinogenicity testing, for example, and likewise are rarely studied in pregnant women, which results in people taking vaccines, either by a proclaimed “emergency”; by a “public health” order from the WHO; by threat of imprisonment or loss of rights over one’s children; or by threat of being abandoned by the medical professionals providing care.

“Informed consent” is devoid of all meaning when people are tricked into taking vaccines by the use of misleading or frightening “information.”

Parents must learn the ways to take care of their children when they get the common childhood illnesses, whether they vaccinate or not, since vaccinated children can still get the diseases they were vaccinated against. In the case of unvaccinated children, who experience childhood maladies, effective home nursing most often allows children to recover naturally, and in most cases, the child will have long-term immunity.

Some vaccine policies have robbed teenagers and adults of the opportunity to get re-exposed and continue with natural immunity. For example, in mothers who were vaccinated against measles, placental transfer of antibodies is limited to a few months instead of more than a year in naturally immune mothers. Sometimes, mothers’ breast milk is devoid of the necessary antibodies they need to protect their newborns—especially if those mothers were vaccinated in childhood.

The above exemplifies but one of the many potential consequences we face as a result of vaccination for measles and other childhood illnesses, such as rubella.

Medical schools do not educate about the contents, dangers, effectiveness or necessity of vaccines. Most medical doctors are fearful of the natural childhood illnesses because they don’t have any idea how to safely assist patients through them. The limited mainstream treatment options I learned often caused the diseases to be worse than they had to be. Yet surprisingly, I discovered other methods which work extremely well, but were never presented as part of my medical education.

In a short article from Stanford Medicine, “Tapping the Immune System’s Secret,” the limitations of immunology are plainly spelled out. The public is repeatedly deceived in order to maintain participation in vaccination. All sorts of tactics are used. One of the most popular is to say that everyone should get vaccinated in order to protect the unvaccinated. This is commonly known as “herd immunity.” I have written an extensive article on herd immunity that can be accessed in the Pathways resource section.

Doctors repeat the advice, “We have to vaccinate them while they are young so the ‘take rate’ is high.” A case in point is an article for which I was interviewed in which one of Maine’s supposed top experts is giving misleading advice. In an article from Bangor Metro titled “A Shot to the Heart,” author Joy Hollowell also interviewed Dr. Jonathan Fanburg, president of the Maine Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics:

Concerns about how much a young child’s immune system can handle at one time have prompted some parents to stagger vaccinations. But Fanburg points out that there is no medical data to support the practice, adding that it’s actually more beneficial to vaccinate infants, rather than wait until they are older. “Children have a better ‘take’ of vaccines in their first two years of life,” he says. “There is a higher rate of immunogenicity, which is the child’s ability to produce antibodies to the vaccine antigen.”

Dr. Fanburg seems to lack understanding as to how an infant’s immune system develops and why. If he understood, he would pause for some time before making such a dogmatic statement.

A baby’s immune system produces only very small amounts of IL-1B and TNF-alpha. There was a time when experts thought that this was simply a defect in all newborn humans. In 2004, a study published by Lakshman Chelvarajan suggested that if vaccine manufacturers added various immune system kickers into vaccines, this would solve the problem and fix these perfectly normal children’s immune systems, which are so often described as being “defective” or “inadequate,” although they are completely age-appropriate, with characteristics shared by all land mammals.

Subunit vaccines like HepB, Strep Pneumo, Hib and Meningococcal have potent “adjuvants,” such as aluminum. Without them, the baby’s immune system sits there and does nothing. An adjuvant creates a red-alert situation, forcing the infant’s innate immune system to respond opposite to the way it should function in the first year of life. Pro-vaccine immunologists see nothing wrong with this.

By 2007, Chelvarajan was seeing things differently. In the last paragraph of a study published in the Journal of Leukocyte Biology, he wrote that whereas in the past, he had considered this a “defect,” he now considered it an important developmental program:

This anti-inflammatory phenotype may be beneficial to the neonate at a time when tissue growth and remodeling events are taking place at a rapid pace…thus the inability of the neonate to respond to infection with encapsulated bacteria may be the risk the organism takes for successful development.

In order to adjust to the world appropriately, an “anti-inflammatory phenotype” is critical to an infant. Breast milk acts as a stand-in innate immune system, which protects the baby from toxin-mediated and other diseases by supplying anti-inflammatory substances in the milk, along with other immune particles. These prevent bacteria and viruses from adhering, or kill them outright.

This protects the baby, acting as “in loco” defense while the infant immune system is being programmed to know self from non-self. This same pattern of development is seen in laboratories where they study non-human mammals, and is ubiquitous across mammals, showing that the anti-inflammatory phenotype is crucial to successful survival both short and long term.

A more recent article published in Nature by S. Elahi in 2013 shows that infant immune cells have full functional capacity, but are clamped down by design, while the infant immune system is learning to distinguish between “self,” healthy commensal microorganisms, and what should later be attacked by the activated and trained immune system.

During this period of “clamping,” which according to Dr. Elahi, is approximately two human years, the infant is well compensated by the mother’s human milk, which continues the educational process and kills unwanted organisms. What then, is the effect of vaccines, which interfere with the quiescent state of the infant immune system’s master plan, adding large amounts of aluminum?

With breast-milk support, an infant immune system develops appropriately and systematically— in its own due time, according to the genetic program placed in the baby at conception. What is that master plan? To enable the infant to safely transition into immunological independence with the minimum level of inflammation possible. Can that system be derailed? Yes it can. What can derail it? Anything which triggers an inflammatory response in the mother while she is pregnant, and in the baby by the use of a vaccination.

Ironically the medical research is very clear about one thing. It’s not the “infection,” per se, that causes problems. It’s the activation of the immune system. How do they know it’s not just the infection? Because stress, toxins and other non-infectious antigens can trigger the immune system cascade in very similar ways to infection.

If it is important for successful development of a baby to allow the risk of infection by not allowing two key parts of the primary infection defense to “fire,” what’s the other risk you might take, if you force an immune system to do something it’s not supposed to do? A vaccine, by definition, causes repeated, chronic inflammation at set time intervals. Vaccines are designed to create peripheral inflammation, and vaccine adjuvants and antigens can cause brain inflammation, and create allergies and autoimmunity—resulting in constant inflammation all around the body. For some children vaccines can also cause mitochondria to stop working properly.

You might now be thinking: If a baby’s default position is to not respond to toxin-mediated bacterial diseases, what chance does a baby have to survive in this world? If you would like to learn more about neonatal immunity, I invite you to read a three-part article accessible in the Pathways resource section, and take note of the medical articles referenced.

Pro-vaccine doctors sometimes cite “peer-reviewed literature” to supposedly prove their point, yet a closer look at their own literature often proves otherwise—as does a closer look at the sick population of vaccinated children they supposedly care for. Furthermore, a close look at medical textbooks through the decades reveals a very interesting trend. In the 1920s and ’30s, doctors were often quite relaxed over diseases which today are presented as more deadly than the plague. Many grandparents today are completely bemused at the way the medical profession describes infections which were, to most of them, straightforward holidays off school.

This is not stating that there were never serious consequences. There sometimes were. However, today, most parents erroneously believe that every child will die from diseases which most grandparents found were nuisance value only.

The medical system now considers measles more dangerous than the plague, and the most dangerous disease known to man. Yet there is no need to be afraid of measles, because well-nourished children who get adequate vitamin A have an unremarkable course to recovery. Boredom might be their biggest whine.

I have discovered that whooping cough isn’t something to be scared of either. In the days when my only tool was an antibiotic, whooping cough occasionally caused me considerable concern, but not today. I’ve watched many parents all over the world treat whooping cough simply by using high doses of vitamin C and occasionally homeopathy. They see rapid improvement and no serious complications. But you will not read about these cases in peer-reviewed literature and your doctor doesn’t know about them, because sick children—the ones they see and often create—are the only ones counted in the morbidity statistics. Healthy children who uneventfully recover are not seen by the medical system, and therefore are not counted.

The serious consequences from most childhood diseases come from just a few things: infant formula, cow’s milk, common medical drugs (especially antibiotics), malnutrition, vaccines and a lack of knowledge about simple methods of home nursing.

All of these barriers to recovery are completely avoidable in the United States and many other countries, and that is why we see so many healthy children who were never vaccinated, when we take the time to look.

In the accompanying chart, you can see how mortality for the common illnesses declined significantly long before the vaccines were created.

There a few common misconceptions about not vaccinating:

1. You are putting other people at risk by not vaccinating.

At risk for what? Chicken pox? Ask your grandmother if she knew anyone who died from measles. Different diseases have different degrees of severity in different age groups. The misconception that “if you don’t vaccinate, you place others at risk” is based on an assumption that vaccinated people do not get the disease they were vaccinated for. Did you know that a controlled study published in BMJ in 2006 showed that of all the whooping cough that was diagnosed, over 86 percent of the children were fully vaccinated and up-to-date for the whooping cough vaccine? There are similar studies showing that mumps and measles outbreaks often affect the vaccinated. People who are vaccinated can have their immune systems altered in a manner that leads to susceptibility to other infectious diseases, and can also leave them vulnerable to the disease they were vaccinated for, due to a phenomenon called “original antigenic sin.” Original antigenic sin is where an injected vaccine antigen programs the body to react in a manner that is incomplete, and different to the natural response to infection. When the vaccinated contact that disease again, they are unable to mount an effective response to the pathogen because vital first steps are missing. The whooping cough vaccine is an example of this.

A noteworthy study was published by Jason Warfel in 2013, looking at baboons, which are susceptible and manifest whooping cough like humans do. In the Warfel study, baboons who were either vaccinated or not vaccinated were later exposed to pertussis (whooping cough) bacteria, something that cannot be done experimentally in humans (due to ethical considerations), but which yields very important data. Expectedly, the baboons that had never been infected got the cough and remained colonized with bacteria for a maximum of 38 days. Baboons that were previously vaccinated and immune vaccine-style, became colonized upon later exposure for a longer time than the naïve baboons: 42 days. However, unvaccinated baboons that recovered naturally and were later exposed to the bacteria did not become colonized at all—zero days.

So, who is providing better herd immunity in the face of bacterial exposure? Vaccinated individuals who presume they are immune, yet remain asymptomatically colonized for 42 days, spreading bacteria? Unvaccinated kids who get infected and remain colonized for 38 days? Or the naturally convalesced who are not able to be colonized and therefore do not spread bacteria at all upon re-exposure? Better still: Natural convalescence makes for decades-longer, more solid immunity than vaccination.

Many vaccine enthusiasts like to invoke the term “herd immunity” to make the argument that the non-vaccinated pose a risk to the vaccinated. But the concept of herd immunity has no relevance to the vaccinated, as it was coined in reference to natural immunity in populations and what level the least epidemics occurred. There is no evidence whatsoever that having an 85 percent or 95 percent vaccination rate protects from outbreaks. This theory has been disproved time and again in highly vaccinated populations.

2. The non-vaccinated spread disease.

Actually it is the opposite. Live vaccines are known to spread to close contacts. One example published in 2011 in Science Direct addresses this, concluding that in a mumps outbreak in the Netherlands, “the risk of a close contact becoming infected by vaccinated patients was small, but present.”

We also know that in pertussis those who are vaccinated are more likely, due to original antigenic sin, to be carriers of the bacteria longer than the nonvaccinated, even when asymptomatic. In his article published in Clinical Infectious Disease in 2004, author James Cherry pointed out that adults, re-vaccinated against pertussis, don’t develop any antibacterial activity whatsoever. He went on to explain why: The current vaccines contain a few antigens, which create original antigenic sin, whereby the immune response to the vaccine is abnormal. That first-learned response then becomes the default position the immune system takes, on future booster shots. So in the case of the whooping cough vaccines, there are key protein virulence factors which have not been included in the vaccines, including ACT, TCF, TCT, BrkA and DNT.

Because the first three are not included, the default immune response does not prevent colonization. Furthermore, Cherry stated that the original antigenic sin results in the vaccinated being unable to clear the bacteria from their lungs. The non-vaccinated have immunity to all the front-line virulence factors, and very quickly clear the bacteria on re-exposure.

Mothers who have been vaccinated may develop surrogate markers which can be measured in a laboratory, but these do not guarantee efficient immune responses after exposure to the natural disease, because their first “learned response” was incorrect. Furthermore, they are still not sure what the surrogate marker actually is for pertussis.

There is similar information on measles, the other disease that has been portrayed by the media as a danger to the population due to non-vaccinated children. But this information is not accurate, nor is measles a dangerous disease in people who have sufficient vitamin A. Another author, B. Damien, pointed out in the September 1998 issue of the Journal of Medical Virology that the vaccinated are 5 to 8 times more susceptible to asymptomatic infection than the non-vaccinated. How then, are the non-vaccinated solely responsible for the recent outbreaks in measles?

Many vaccines are said to be “attenuated,” or modified-live, and supposedly do not infect, but over the decades we have seen how those attenuated viruses mutate once they are in a human and can spread more virulent disease than what is being vaccinated for. The oral polio vaccines in Nigeria today are a case in point. But this can happen with any attenuated viral vaccine.

The original Salk polio vaccines were supposed to be killed vaccines, and yet they infected thousands of people, killing and paralyzing more than 200 of them. This figure is thought to be a gross underestimate of the damage done.

It is not uncommon to see a child recently vaccinated for chicken pox develop shingles or chicken pox. I’ve also seen the shingles vaccine (which has 14 times the amount of virus as the chicken pox vaccine) provoke shingles in an elderly woman days after the vaccine was given. Strangely enough, it sent all of her doctors to start reading to see if shingles vaccines can cause shingles, because medical doctors know almost nothing about vaccines.

Here are things to consider when you hear of an outbreak of an infectious disease: How many of the affected were fully vaccinated, and how many people died or were put in the hospital? Were the cases verified with laboratory tests, or are the reports based on community doctor reports?

Another question to bear in mind is, Were the people hospitalized because the disease was really serious, or because the family didn’t know how to deal with it and responded to a medical profession hard-wired to believe everyone with that disease can die? In other words, was the admission to the hospital really necessary?

3. Deaths from these terrible diseases that once plagued humanity will return to pre-vaccine levels if we do not keep up the vaccines.

We can see from the graph on the opposite page that the mortality of these diseases was drastically declining prior to vaccination. In addition, you might want to know the more rational explanation for deadly disease decline in modern times. It’s not vaccination; it’s hygiene. In a 2002 article published in The Lancet, “What is the evidence for a causal link between hygiene and infections?” authors Allison E. Aiello and Elaine L. Larson offer the epidemiological evidence between hygiene practices and infections.

Here is something else you may not have been informed of by your healthcare professional: All the reduction, even for tuberculosis, was achieved before vaccines of any sort were offered in the U.S., and most of the reductions for all diseases were achieved before antibiotics became commercially available in about 1950 as well. So what did that? It wasn’t vaccines. Yet all the countries which used the BCG as front-line protection saw an identical decline to the one which we saw in the U.S. using no TB vaccine.

If you compare graphs for death declines in diphtheria and scarlet fever, they are almost identical. Yet there never was a widely used vaccine for scarlet fever. Scarlet fever—and its resulting complication, rheumatic fever—has clearly been shown in the medical literature to be nutritionally driven. This is why people who have had scarlet fever are primarily in war-torn, hungry and impoverished countries. In developed countries where rheumatic fever is an issue, it’s primarily seen among less-educated groups, whose nutritional understanding or access to good food is limited.

Yet undereducated people in stable social environments, without much money, who understand and follow effective nutritional pathways, will be on the scale of low susceptibility. It really is the nutrition and well-being that counts. It just so happens that low education, homelessness and poverty often coexist.

The reason rheumatic fever is a significant problem among poorer, less-educated, less-nourished groups is because poor nutrition is historically correlated with higher rates of rheumatic fever. All of us carry strep A regularly, but the well-fed amongst us don’t get scarlet fever, let alone its complication, rheumatic fever.

This point is documented enough to lay aside any concern over whether or not correlation implies causation.

Historically, in the case of infectious diseases, good nutrition has been and still is a major preventive factor. That has led to enormous declines of morbidity and mortality from most infectious diseases.

It’s not my place to tell anyone whether to vaccinate or not. But if people are going to choose wisely, they need to know the full ramifications of their options.

via PathwaystoFamilyWellness.org

Polish Study of Neurologic Adverse Events Following Vaccination

Polish Study of Neurologic Adverse Events Following Vaccination

Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 129 Neurologic adverse events following vaccination Sienkiewicz D.*, Kułak W., Okurowska-Zawada B., Paszko-Patej G. Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland

ABSTRACT __________________________________________________________________________________________

The present review summarizes data on neurological adverse events following vaccination in the relation to intensity, time of onset, taking into account the immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. The authors described the physiological development of the immune system and the possible immune system responses following vaccination. Toxic property of thimerosal – a mercury-containing preservative used in some vaccines was presented. The neurological complications after vaccination were described. The role of vaccination in the natural course of infectious diseases and the current immunizations schedule in Poland was discussed.

Key words: vaccination, neurologic adverse events following vaccination, immunization schedules __________________________________________________________________________________________ *Corresponding author: Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medical University of Białystok 17 Waszyngtona str, 15-836 Białystok Poland E-mail: sdorota11@op.pl (Dorota Sienkiewicz) Received: 29.01.2012 Accepted: 22.02.2012 Progress in Health Sciences Vol. 2(1) 2012·pp 129-141. © Medical University of Bialystok, PolandProg Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 130

INTRODUCTION

Adverse reactions In developed countries, the schedules of mandatory and recommended vaccination for children contain more and more components with a specific emphasis on the co-administration of multiple antigens in combined form. This direction on the one hand provides many benefits and on the other carries an increased risk of side effects, the immunopathogenesis of which is not fully explained in many cases [1]. An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is an undesirable side effect occurring after the administration of a vaccine [2]. It is a temporary, local or general reaction of the organism to an administered vaccine. A postvaccinal complication (PC) is associated with an excessive or pathological reaction with the characteristics of postvaccinal disease, which in extreme cases can lead to permanent damage, threat to life or even death [3]. Complications affecting the nervous system raise the most controversy; the more so, as the children subjected to vaccination are healthy.

In annex no. 1 to the Ordinance of the Minister of Health of 23rd December 2002 on adverse events following vaccination (Journal of Law from 31/12/2002, no. 241, item 2097, as amended. Journal of Law from 2005, no. 232, item 1973), the following categories of AEFI are presented [4].

1) Local reactions, including:

  • a) local reactions after the BCG vaccine,
  • b) swelling,
  • c) lymphadenopathy,
  • d) abscess at the injection site;

2) Postvaccinal adverse events of the central nervous system:

  • a) encephalopathy,
  • b) febrile convulsions,
  • c) non-febrile convulsions,
  • d) paralytic poliomyelitis caused by vaccine virus,
  • e) encephalitis,
  • f) meningitis,
  • g) Guillain – Barre syndrome;

3) Other adverse events following immunization:

  • a) joint pain,
  • b) hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode
  • c) fever above 39⁰C
  • d) thrombocytopenia,
  • e) continuous inconsolable crying.

Other classifications of postvaccinal reactions can be found in the literature, some of which put an emphasis on the neurological symptoms, while others emphasize the immunological mechanisms.

Byers et al. describing neurological complications, have included as “minor” – mild or severe postvaccinal reactions, occurring up to 48 hours after injection and disappearing without leaving permanent sequelae, the following:

  • prolonged crying,
  • restlessness and hyperactivity,
  • apathy with increased sleepiness,
  • high body temperature,
  • a temporary mild increase in intracranial pressure manifested by a throbbing crown of the head,
  • “cerebral cry” (sometimes included among “major” complications) [5-7].

Among the “major” neurological complications, usually manifesting more than 48 hours after vaccination and which might be the cause of permanent damage to the central nervous system (CNS), the following are listed:

  • seizures – especially if there is no increase in body temperature,
  • hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes,
  • postvaccinal encephalitis,
  • postvaccinal encephalopathy [6, 8-11]
  • and autism [10, 12-14].

Konior and Strózik [7] have proposed their own classification of postvaccinal reactions taking into account the contribution of the immune system in the vaccinated children. They divided the adverse events into two groups:

1. related to the immune system – patients with immunodeficiencies (mainly cellular) and atopic patients with hypersensitivity to certain vaccine components

2. unrelated to the immune system – patients whose postvaccinal reactions may be related to the toxic effects of the vaccine components or may result from the vaccine virus turning virulent, resulting in complete or abortive symptoms of the disease.

Another classification of adverse events following vaccination distinguishes:

Local postvaccinal reactions (redness, swelling, pain at the injection site) occurring particularly often after the administration of live vaccines (10.8% -15.5% of reports) [15]

 Generalized postvaccinal reactions (fever, malaise, muscle pain, joint pain, headaches, flu-like symptoms, local lymphadenopathy, allergic reactions) – usually disappear spontaneously within 3 days of vaccination, do not require treatment [16].

 Early postvaccinal complications – anaphylactic reaction, described in one in about 1 million of vaccinated individuals, occurs most often after immunization against typhoid, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella [16].

 Late and long-term complications – determined by different immunological mechanisms, occur most often after the administration of preparations containing live micro-organisms (e.g., flaccid paralysis after an oral poliovirus vaccine OPV – 10 individuals annually per 1 million people vaccinated) [16].

Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1

Neurologic adverse events vaccination 131

Reports in many Polish and foreign medical journals lead us to conclude that postvaccinal complications among children can be observed in sporadic cases and that they are disproportionate to the benefits of vaccination in the elimination of dangerous diseases in childhood. This article focuses on several aspects related to overall immunization, including: the physiological development of the immune system, the possible immune system responses following vaccination, the site of vaccination in the natural course of infectious diseases and the current immunization schedule in Poland compared with other countries. The immune system in terms of vaccination

Physiology

Immune system functioning in neonates is characterized by complex mechanisms to adapt to the changed conditions of postnatal life. In infancy and early childhood, the individual components of specific and nonspecific immunity gradually develop and mature [17]. The humoral immunity of neonates is acquired and is associated with active transport of maternal immunoglobulin G through the placenta (starting from the end of the first trimester of pregnancy) mainly in the last 5-6 weeks of pregnancy. A neonate’s humoral response is therefore a state of physiological dysimmunoglobulinemia, i.e. it has an average concentration of its own IgG, minimal or low concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD [13, 14]. The level of maternal IgG gradually decreases, while the level of the child’s IgG increases reaching approximately 60% of the adult level after 12 months. In the 2-3 month of life, an intersection of curves takes place – the declining curve of maternal IgG concentration and the increasing curve of infant IgG concentration (graph). The infant’s IgG level is the lowest then [18].

Levels of antibodies in the blood serum of the fetus, neonate and infant [18] From a physiological point of view, according to Jakóbisiak’s [18] classification, the group of secondary immunodeficiency disorders includes conditions such as pregnancy and conditions associated with age (neonates, the elderly). Premature babies are a specific group, whose shortened period of maternal IgG influx leads to compromised anti-infective immunity. On the other hand, according to the author, on account of the existing maternal antibodies, vaccination against certain microorganisms administered shortly after birth does not lead to long-lasting immunity. It should be emphasized that the immune system reaches full immunoregulatory and defensive maturity at about 3 years of age [19]. It is well established that early-life immune responses are weaker and of shorter duration than elicited in immunologically mature hosts. Consequently, vaccine efficacy in early infancy (particularly in the first 6 months of age) is limited [20]. Thus, in oder to provoke and sustain an adequate B-cell immune response in a neonate, strong immune adjuvants and repeated closely spaced booster doses are needed [21]. The problem with this approach is two-fold. First, experimental evidence clearly shows, that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants, or repeated stimulation of the immune system by the same antigen can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity [22]. Second,while it is generally accepted that potency and toxicity of immune adjuvants must be adequately balanced so that the necessary immune stimulation is achived with minimal side effects, in practical terms, such a balance is very difficult to achieve. This is because the same adjuvantedmediated mrchanisms which drive to the immunestimulatory effects of vaccines have the capacity to provoke a variety of adverse reactions [23, 24] Vaccinations and immune response A vaccine is defined as a biological preparation containing antigen(s) of microorganisms that cause specific stimulation of the immune response after administration which protects against infection by this microorganism, with safety precautions taken during administration [18, 25].

A vaccine may contain:

  • 1. Microorganism antigens – bacterial or viral (live-attenuated, dead), isolated antigens – proteins, polysaccharides, DNA and anatoxins (diphtheria, tetanus) with retained immunegenicity but devoid of pathogenic properties,
  • 2. Suspension: water, physiological saline, substrate protein, e.g. egg white, gelatin,
  • 3. Preservatives: thiomerosal (mercury), antibiotics, phenol,
  • 4. Adjuvants, the aim of which is to enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine – aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate are the most commonly used.

Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 132

According to the literature [18], it is believed that vaccines containing live microorganisms are among the most effective means of inducing immunity against infectious disease. Attenuated microorganisms (viruses, BCG mycobacteria) retain the ability to replicate in host cells, which stimulates cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, CD8 +) that destroy cells infected by them. The way of impact of isolated antigens or antigens derived from whole inactivated microorganisms is different. In this case, a stimulation of the auxiliary Th (CD4+) lymphocyte response takes place. Th lymphocytes contain two distinct – in functional terms – subpopulations: Th1 and Th2. According to Jakóbisiak – with some simplification – it can be assumed that the Th1 lymphocytes perform auxiliary functions in cell-type response and Th2 in humoral response [18]. The mechanism of immune response to various types of vaccine antigens, especially to antigens in multicomponent vaccines, is not fully understood and researched.

The vaccination-stimulated Th2 pathway responsible for the production of antibodies, the pathway which predominates in neonates and infants, in the absence of an adequate balance of Th1 response may lead to the development of allergic reactions [25]. This is symptomatic of the fact that allergic diseases are often referred to as “an epidemic of the XXI century” [26, 27]. As stated in the “European Allergy White Paper”, the clinical symptoms of allergy are present in 35% of the population of developed countries, and according to the ISAAC (The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) as many as 40%. Allergy is one of the major health problems on par with AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, injuries and accidents [28 – 30]. According to other authors, a restriction of the natural environmental infections stimulating Th1 response as well as change of their natural course resulting from mass immunization, an increase in general hygiene and widespread use of antibiotics (“Hygiene Theory”) inhibiting and delaying the adjustment of Th2/Th1 could theoretically also contribute to the growth of the risk of allergic diseases [31, 32]. A confirmation of this thesis was the study of Swiss children from anthroposoic backgrounds, in which significantly less atopy was observed than in children from other backgrounds. In this group, a positive correlation of diseases with the MMR vaccination was found [33]. In addition, in a series of papers, Silverberg et al. have shown that wild type varicella zoster virus infection (WTVZV), but not varicella vaccine (VV), protects against asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) in young children [34, 35]. The protective effect of WTVZV was attributed to its beneficial effect on stimulating Th1-primed immune responses and suppressing allergy-promoting Th2 responses. According to Silverberg et al. [34], ―The introduction of widespread varicella vaccination and resultant decline of WTVZV in the United States may be a contributing factor in the increased prevalence of AD [atopic dermatitis] over the past few decades.‖ Notably, other than not providing an effective stimulus for proper immune system development, recent research has shown that vaccines are actually capable of disrupting it. For example, annual vaccination against influenza has been shown to hamper the development of virusspecific CD8+ T-cell immunity in children [36] From the above observations it is clear that the proper functioning of the immune system involves a delicate balance between the two arms of the immune equilibrium (Th1/Th2), and its tilt to either side can be harmful for the body [30]. Furthermore, it appears that the necessary Th1/Th2 balance is better provided by natural challenges (i.e., in a form of relatively benign childhood diseases such as chickenpox and mumps) rather than vaccination. Recent research by Singh of the International Institute for Brain Research in the USA confirm the veracity of this statement. In the study, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed in terms of viral and autoimmune markers in Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 133 patients with autism compared with a group of healthy children – both groups were vaccinated with MMR (measles, mumps, rubella vaccine) [37]. This is the first of this type of research examining a positive correlation between viral factors (viral serology) and autoimmune factors (brain autoantibodies). It was found that higher levels of measles antibodies were accompanied by Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) autoantibodies in children with autism (Figure.3). A similar serology was found in CSF. Fig. 3. Correlations between MMR antibodies and MBP autoantibodies in autistic and healthy children. (Source: [37] Singh VK. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 2009, 21, 3,148-161; with permission: Healthy Impressions) The results in Table 1 show a comparative study of antibodies against other viral pathogens in the studied population of children which confirmed the pathogenic role of the measles strain.

Table 1. Blood serum levels of antiviral antibodies in healthy and autistic children Virus antibody (units)

Measle s Mu mps Rub ella HH V-6 CMV EBV EA EBN A VC A

  • Normal children 3.3±0. 1 2.5± 0.2 3.2± 0.2 1.6± 0.6 0.28 ±0.4 0.5±0 .04 1.2 ±0.2 1.8± 0.3 (n=32) (n= 30) (n=4 5) (n= 37) (n=3 0) (n=4 4) (n=4 4) (n= 44)
  • Autistic children 4.2±0. 1* 2.6± 0.3 3.3 ±0.1 2.2± 5.3 0.23+ 0.3 0.6 ±0.04 0.9± 0.2 1.4± 0.2 (n=87) (n= 32) (n=7 4) (n= 45) (n=3 0) (n=4 4) (n=4 4) (n= 44) p value .003* .76 .98 .5 .37 .76 .21 .15

(Source: [37] Singh VK. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 2009, 21, 3,148-161; with permission: Healthy Impressions)

CMV: cytornegalovirus; EA: early antigen; EBNA: Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus; HHV-6: human herpesvirus-6; VCA: viral capsid antigen; *Student t test was used to evaluate significance at a p value < 0.05 Significantly elevated levels of cytokines – IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ (factors triggering autoimmune response) – and acute phase proteins were also found in patients [37].

According to the authors of this study, subtle changes in the child’s developing brain caused by an autoimmune reaction, changes in the myelin sheath, may ultimately lead to impairment Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 134 of higher brain functions such as speech, communication, social interaction, as well as other neurological symptoms occurring in children with autism. In this study, the measles viruses were researched, but under the immunization program children also receive vaccinations with simultaneous administration of several viral components. What then occurs in the brain of a child? Presently, there are no studies in this area.

In an earlier study concerning postvaccinal adverse events of the immune system, Mannhalter et al. [38] presented an analysis of T lymphocyte (Th1/Th2) subpopulations in healthy adults before and after the administration of a vaccine containing the tetanus toxin. The result was a decrease in the Th1/Th2 ratio after vaccination, with maximum intensity 3 to 14 days after injection. These reports present a picture of neuroimmune disorders which may be the result of vaccinations carried out on an increasingly wider scale. A clear answer to this hypothesis would require both large-scale epidemiological studies as well as in-depth laboratory research. In Poland, multi-antigen combination vaccines are commonly administered at full cost with parental consent. Most often children are immunized at the same time with: diphtheria and tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigen, polio and H.influenzae (Infanrix-IPV+Hib, Pentaxim vaccines) or with an additional antigen of hepatitis B virus (Infanrix hexa vaccine). These vaccinations are repeated from the second month of life 3 times every 6-8 weeks. The recommended vaccinations against rotavirus and pneumococcal (2-3 doses) are also proposed to children under 6 months of age. Together with the tuberculosis and hepatitis B vaccinations administered in the first 24h of life, an infant receives 24-26 doses of xenogenic antigens. According to Tsumiyama et al. [39] systemic autoimmunity appears to be the inevitable consequence of over-stimulating the host’s immune ‘system’ by repeated immunization with antigen. Indeed, in adults multiple vaccinations have been associated with a variety of autoimmune phenolmena [40 – 42], yet children are regularly exposed to a much higher burden of vaccines than adults under the assumption that such exposures are safe [43] . Vaccinations as an important “training” for the immune system lower its threshold of defense responses, which is a measure to prevent the development of infectious diseases. However, a question arises: how will the not fully mature, still developing immune system of a healthy child and the still forming central nervous system respond to such intense stimulation? Is it able to correctly respond with the same protective effect to so many different stimuli? Do the multi-antigen vaccine side effects change compared to the previously used vaccinations and how? Thus far, these questions lack clear answers. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize that a burgeoning body of evidence shows that immune molecules play integral roles in CNS development, affecting processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic connectivity and synaptic plasticity [44 – 46]. Despite the dogma that peripheral immune responses do not affect CNS function, substantial evidence points exactly to the contrary [44, 47, 48]. Thus, it is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes [43, 49] Neurological symptoms following vaccination

In recent years, attention has been brought to the mercury contained in vaccines as a component with toxic and allergic properties. The mercury compound is found in organic combinations in the form of sodium salt – thimerosal (sodium ethylmercuriothiosalicylate, merthiolate). The incidence of allergy to this compound is variously estimated from 13% in the Netherlands to 21% in Austria. Vaccinations are a primary cause of the initial allergic reactions to thimerosal [50]. Mercury’s neurotoxicity (accumulation in the brain), cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity are mentioned as its toxic activity. It causes, among others, developmental disorders in children and neurodegenerative diseases in adults [7]. According to researchers [51, 52], a manifold incidence increase of psychoneurological diseases such as autism, ADHD, mental retardation, epilepsy and others have been observed all over the world over the past twenty years. As stated, from the 1990s new vaccines for infants containing thimerosal began to be used in America. In the DTP, Hib and Hep B vaccines, children received a dose of 62.5 ug of mercury, which is 125-fold more than the dose considered safe (0.1ug/kg/day). These reports were the reason that Scandinavian countries already prohibited the use of mercury in 1990 [53]. In 2005, a paper was published which describes the sudden death (SUD – Sudden Unexpected Death) of 19 infants within a few hours/days after vaccination with two hexavalent vaccines (DTP-Hib-HepB-IPV). The healthy prior to vaccination children died as a result of postvaccinal cerebral and lung edema and heart attacks. As the authors conclude, despite the lack of direct evidence for a causal relationship of the described SUDs with vaccination, it is a signal that brings to attention the need to monitor the course of vaccination and its complications [54].Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 135

In another study from 2004, Geier et al. [12] confirmed through epidemiological research the direct relationship between increasing doses of thimerosal and the incidence of autism in children in the US from the late 1980s through the mid- 1990s. In addition, there was a potential correlation between the number of primary pediatric measlescontaining vaccines (MMR) administered and the prevalence of autism during the 1980s. Geier et al. [12] also found a statistically significant odds ratios for the development of autism following increasing doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines (birth cohorts: 1985 and 1990-1995) in comparison to a baseline measurement (birth cohort: 1984). The contribution of thimerosal from childhood vaccines (>50% effect) was greater than that of the MMR vaccine on the prevalence of autism observed in the study. In Poland, according to the documents “Characteristics of Pharmaceuticals”, there are currently several permitted vaccines with significant thimerosal (THIM) content. These are: Euvax (Hepatitis B, LG Life Sciences, Korean manufacture) – 0.01% THIM-50μg/dose, DT (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, Td (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, DTP (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, D,d (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, TT (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose [4, 55]. The frequency of observed reactions and complications depend on the general condition, especially neurological, of the child, the age, immunological resistance status as well as family and genetic load. In the literature, neurological symptoms are usually connected with the pertussis component of the vaccines, including: cerebral cry, according to Cody, occurs in 1:1000 of vaccinated subjects; seizures – mild, feverish – triggered by the pertussis endotoxin, in 10% of vaccinated subjects the convulsions occur without elevated body temperature, and severe seizures occur according to Waller et al. in 1 in 106,000 children [25]. In serious complications, such as encephalitis (about 2.9/10,000,00 of those vaccinated with DTP), encephalopathy (1:140,000 – 1:300,000 of the vaccinated), which may result in mental retardation, recurrent seizures, epilepsy – particularly myoclonic and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, changes in the central nervous system comparable to those which occur in the course of meningitis and encephalitis were reported. In the early stages, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination outbreaks were observed, then myelin atrophy with intact neuron axial fiber, degenerated microglia and macrophage cells. Some experimental studies suggest the pertussis toxin, which through the membrane receptors causes inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction and induces activity of excitatory neurotransmitters [56, 57]. In 2010, a case of a 6-month-old previously healthy boy admitted to hospital on day 6 after vaccination with DTwP (whole cell) was described. The child was in a coma, hypotonia, with focal clonic seizures. MRI of the central nervous system using proton spectroscopy revealed acute necrotizing encephalopathy [58]. Previously, epileptic seizures in children with asymptomatic CMV infection which occurred after vaccination with DTwP and OPV had also been described. In the case of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, DTaP (acellular) and IPV (inactivated) vaccinations are recommended [59]. As stated in the Polish literature, acellular vaccines are much better tolerated than whole cell – the risk of fever after the first dose is reduced by over 99%, the risk of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes by 56%, similar to seizures, and the risk of inconsolable crying after the first dose is reduced by 87% [4]. According to the current vaccination schedule in Poland, infants receive the first three doses of DTwP in the first 6-8 weeks of life every 6-8 weeks, the 4th dose in the 16th-18th month of life, and a DTaP booster at 6 years of age. Given the often reported neurological complications after whole-cell pertussis (DTwP, DTP) vaccine, most developed countries – European and the US – have introduced changes in their immunization schedules and the safer acellular (DTaP) vaccines are administered to children. Of these countries, the only exceptions are: Bulgaria, Malta and Poland. In Poland, the safe vaccine is paid in full.

Other neurological complications associated with the administered vaccination are listed, among others, as follows:

  • multiple sclerosis after hepatitis B vaccine [60],
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome – after vaccination against influenza, hepatitis, meningitis C, polio and HPV vaccines [61-65],
  • transverse myelitis as a result of vaccination against cholera, typhoid, polio, and influenza,
  • flaccid paralysis, meningitis, encephalitis, convulsions and facial palsy after live polio vaccine [65, 66],
  • rapid progression of retinopathy in premature infants after BCG vaccination [67].

Monitoring In the case of AEFI, the obligation of notification was described in article 21 of the Preventing and fighting infections and infectious diseases in humans Act. According to the Act, a physician who recognizes or suspects the occurrence of AEFI is required, within 24 hours after concluding the suspicion, to notify the State Sanitary Inspector of the suspected case [3]. In order for that to be possible, the child’s guardian must also be accurately informed about the adverse symptoms following vaccination that may occur, then report the problem to the doctor or nurse who will take further steps.

There was an attempt to trace the actual scale of the adverse events following vaccination reported by nurses and doctors. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 136  The monitoring system was introduced in Poland in 1996 and is based on the WHO recommendations. In the Zieliński study, the number of AEFI reported in 1996-2000 from different provinces was analyzed and clear differences regarding the frequency of recorded entries were found. As the authors write, “they met astonishing examples of ignorance of the medical staff, including specialists, in their duty to report the AEFI” in their epidemiological practice [68]. On the other hand, there is no real possibility of laboratory tests to confirm a causal relationship between the clinical picture and the used vaccine. For example, only a few research laboratories in Poland, of the highest reference level, posses the microbiological methods for distinguishing mycobacteria from the BCG vaccine from other species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain [69]. There are also no reports in the literature (except those listed above) of research work in immunology in the context of reactions following vaccination. It should also be noted that in more developed countries, there is little incentive for doing appropriate follow-up and laboratory tests on individuals who suffered serious adverse reactions following vaccinations [70]. The reason for such oversight is likely due to the fact that historically, vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic by the regulatory agencies [68] The resulting lack of evidence of causality between vaccinations and serious adverse outcomes has thus been filled with an assumption that vaccines are safe [71]. Natural history of infectious diseases/ immunizations Based on statistics from the Federal Statistics Office in Wiesbaden, Buchwald published a paper containing long-term observations of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. It is interesting that in recent decades a decrease of infectious diseases was generally reported, which took place before the introduction of inoculations against these diseases. According to a 2002 report from Lancet Infectious Diseases [72] ―the weight of evidence collectively suggests that personal and environmental hygiene reduces the spread of infection‖ and ―Thus results from this review demonstrate that there is a continued, measurable, positive effect of personal and community hygiene on infectious‖. The same report showed that the crude death rate from infectious diseases decreased to nearly negligible levels long before introduction of universal vaccination practices. Currently, the developed countries introduce increasingly complex vaccination schedules. Forty years ago, children were immunized against five diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, smallpox), today this number has increased to eleven. At the same time, as mentioned previously, repeatedly administered multi-antigen vaccines are recommended. Doctors and researchers point to the worsening state of health of the child population since the 1960s, which coincided with increasingly introduced vaccinations. Allergic diseases, including asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and many neurological dysfunctions – difficulty in learning, ADD (attention deficit disorder), ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), seizures, and autism – are chronic conditions, to which attention has been brought [73]. Proposals for modification of the vaccination schedule European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months – MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced [4, 74]. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines [49]. Professor Majewska – a neurobiologist, Director of the Marie Curie Chairs Program at the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System in Warsaw – together with pediatricians, drafted a proposal for changes to the vaccination program in Poland, which is based on an analysis of programs in other European Union countries. The propositions are as follows:

1. Eliminate thimerosal from all vaccines.

2. Discontinue the immunization of infants with the hepatitis B vaccine (vaccinate only newborns at high risk, i.e. of infected mothers).

3. Discontinue BCG vaccination of neonates (use only in regions where the percentage of TB patients is over 40 per 100 thousand).

4. Begin vaccination from 4 months old in the remaining group of children.

5. Discontinue the whole cell pertussis vaccine.

6. Give a maximum of three types of vaccines in one day.

7. Discontinue the administration of live virus vaccines or give them one at a time at safe intervals.

8. Make monovalent vaccines accessible.

9. Commitment of the doctor administering the vaccine to conduct a preliminary interview with the parents about allergies, asthma and other autoimmune diseases and postvaccinal complications in family members, allowing them to predict whether a given child may experience severe postvaccinal reactions. Such a child should have an individual, very careful vaccination program developed.

10. Monitor the health status of children after vaccination in order to notice life- or healththreatening conditions in time.

11. Create a national program for compulsory registration of postvaccinal complications and deaths. These data should be reported to the WHO and information about complications should be provided in the child’s health record book [51]. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 138

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the assurances of the necessity and safety of vaccinations, there are more and more questions and doubts, which both physicians and parents are waiting to be clarified. This paper describes several aspects of the immunization program of children. It includes:

  • the physiological development of the immune system,
  • the immunization schedule adopted in Poland in comparison with other countries,
  • adverse reactions and complications following vaccination described in scientific publications,
  • the natural course of infectious diseases in conjunction with the vaccination programs implemented
  • and the problem of reporting adverse reactions following vaccination by medical personnel and parents.

The proposal for changes in vaccination in Poland cited at the end of this paper is, according to the authors, part of the answer to the concerns and doubts. A second part would be extensive neuroimmunological research confirming or excluding the relationship of vaccines with the reported adverse events (early, late/long-term) and chronic diseases whose upward trend has been observed in recent decades in children. It seems that it would be worthwhile to apply the precautionary principle – the ethical principle (from 1988) according to which if there is a probable, although poorly known, risk of adverse effects of new technology, it is better not to implement it rather than risk uncertain but potentially very harmful consequences.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Mrs. Ursula HumienikDworakowska for the translation of this article.

Conflicts of interest

We declare that we have no conflicts of interest.

REFERENCES

1. Ward BJ. Vaccine adverse events In the New millennium: is there reason for concern? Bull of the World Health Org. 2000; 78, 2: 205-15. 2. Bernatowska E. Vaccinations and their safety. Centrum Zdrowia Dziecka. Warszawa 2004. (Polish) 3. Taraszkiewicz F, Bogus-Parfieniuk W, Ołdak E, Sulik A. Vaccine adverse events in children between the ages 0 – 2 years. Przegl Epidemiol. 1994; 48, 4: 505-9. (Polish) 4. Kubiak R. Legal basis for the implementation of vaccination. Opinions and interpretations. – Educational workshops: Vaccinations in medical practice – the clinical situation to the optimal decision Med Prakt. 2010; 1: 3-39. (Polish). 5. Byers R, Moll FC. Encephalopathies following prophylactic pertussis vaccine. Pediatrics. 1948; 1:437. 6. Brett EM. Pediatric Neurology. New York: Churchil Livingstone; 1991. 7. Strózik K, Konior R. Vaccine adverse events and complications Medycyna 2000; 1997: 54- 6. (Polish) 8. Placebo-controlled trial of two acellular pertussis vaccines in Sweden–protective efficacy and adverse events. Ad Hoc Group for the Study of Pertussis Vaccines. Lancet. 1988; 30;1(8592):955-60. Erratum in: Lancet 1988 May 28;1(8596):1238. 9. Miller D, Madge N, Diamond J, Wadsworth J, Ross E. Pertussis immunisation and serious acute neurological illnesses in children. BMJ. 1993 Nov; 6; 307(6913):1171-6. 10. Peter G. Childhood immunizations. N Engl J Med. 1992 Dec 17; 327(25): 1794-800. 11. Sidor K, Radzikowski A. Vaccination of children with disorders of the central nervous system. Klin Pediatr. 1996; 2, 4: 57-9. (Polish) 12. Geier DA, Geier MR. A comparative evaluation of the effects of MMR immunization and Mercury doses from thiomersal-containing childhood vaccines on Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 139 the population prevalence of autism. Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar; 10(3): P133-9. 13. Grether J, Croen L, Theis C, Blaxill M, Haley B, Holmes A. Baby hair, mercury toxicity and autism. Int J Toxicol. 2004 Jul-Aug; 23(4): 275-6. 14. Mutter J, Naumann J, Schneider R, Walach H, Haley B. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Oct; 26(5): 439-46. 15. Zhou W, Pool V, Iskander JK, EnglishBullard R, Ball R, Wise RP, Haber P, Pless RP, Mootrey G, Ellenberg SS, Braun MM, Chen RT. Surveillance for safety after immunization: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)–United States, 1991-2001. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2003 Jan; 24; 52(1):1-24. Erratum in: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2003 Feb 14;52(06):113. 16. Panasiuk B, Prokopowicz D. Is vaccination safe? Nowa Pediatr. 2006; 4:86-9. (Polish) 17. Zeman K. Immune disorders in children. Warszawa: PZWL; 2002. (Polish). 18. Jakóbisiak M. Immunology. Wyd. Naukowe. Warszawa: PWN; 2007. (Polish). 19. Deggeller L. Concerning childhood vaccination today. J Anthroposophic Med. 1992; 9, 2: 1-15. 20. Siegrist CA, Aspinall R. B-cell responses to vaccination at the extremes of age. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Mar; 9(3): 185-94. 21. Siegrist CA. Neonatal and early life vaccinology. Vaccine. 2001 May 14; 19(25- 26): 3331-46. 22. Tsumiyama K, Miyazaki Y, Shiozawa S. Selforganized criticality theory of autoimmunity. PLoS One. 2009 Dec 31; 4(12): e8382. 23. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus. 2012 Feb; 21(2): 223-30 24. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov; 105(11):1489-99. 25. Willak-Janc E. Vaccination in children with allergic diseases. Alergia Astma Immunol. 2003; 8, 3: 107-9. (Polish) 26. Hoffmann-Sommergruber and the SAFE consortium. The SAFE Project: „plant-food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence In Europe‖ an EC-funded study. Allergy. 2005 Apr; 60(4): 436-42. 27. Kaczmarski M, Nowowiejska B, Maciorkowska E. Modern possibilities of preventing the development of allergic diseases in children and adolescents, with particular reference to food allergy. Pol Merkur Lek. 2001; 10: 374-378. (Polish) 28. Aas K, Aberg N, Bachert C, Bergmann K, Bergmann R, Bonini S. European Allergy White Paper. Allergic diseases as a public health problem in Europe. UCB Pharmaceuticals Sector, Braine-l’Alleud, Belgium. 1997; 14-59. 29. Coulie P. Reasons for the increase in the prevalence of allergies. Allergy and Clin Immunol. 2002; 14: 288-9. 30. Osterballe M, Hansen TK, Mortz CG, Høst A, Bindslev-Jensen C. The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in an unselected population of children and adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2005 Nov; 16(7): 567-73. 31. Constant S, Bottomly K. Induction of Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T cell responses; the alternative approaches. Ann Rev Immunol. 1997; 15: 297-305. 32. Kay AB. Allergy and allergic diseases. First of two parts. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jan 4; 344(1):1263-9. 33. Alm JS, Swartz J, Lilja G, Scheynius A, Pershagen G. Atopy in children of families with an anthroposophic lifestyle. Lancet. 1999 May 1; 353(9163): 1485-8. 34. Silverberg JI, Norowitz KB, Kleiman E, Silverberg NB, Durkin HG, Joks R, SmithNorowitz TA. Association between varicella zoster virus infection and atopic dermatitis in early and late childhood: a case-control study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Aug; 126(2): 300-5. 35. Silverberg JI, Norowitz KB, Kleiman E, Durkin H, Smith-Norowitz TA. Varicella zoster virus (wild-type) infection, but not varicella vaccine, in late childhood is associated with delayed asthma onset, milder symptoms, and decreased atopy. Pediatr Asthma Allergy Immunol. 2009 Mar; 22:15- 20. 36. Bodewes R, Fraaij PL, Geelhoed-Mieras MM, van Baalen CA, Tiddens HA, van Rossum AM, van der Klis FR, Fouchier RA, Osterhaus AD, Rimmelzwaan GF. Annual vaccination against influenza virus hampers development of virus-specific CD8⁺ T cell immunity in children. J Virol. 2011 Nov; 85(22): 1995- 2000. 37. Singh VK. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2009 Jul-Sep; 21(3): 148-61. 38. Eibl MM, Mannhalter JW, Zlabinger G. Abnormal T-lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy subjects after tetanus booster immunization. N Engl J Med. 1984 Jan 19; 310(3): 198-9. 39. Tsumiyama K, Miyazaki Y, Shiozawa S. Selforganized criticality theory of autoimmunity. PLoS One. 2009 Dec 31; 4(12): e8382. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 140 40. Exley C, Swarbrick L, Gherardi RK, Authier FJ. A role for the body burden of aluminium in vaccine-associated macrophagic myofasciitis and chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Hypotheses. 2009 Feb; 72(2): 135-9. 41. Authier FJ, Cherin P, Creange A, Bonnotte B, Ferrer X, Abdelmoumni A, Ranoux D, Pelletier J, Figarella-Branger D, Granel B, Maisonobe T, Coquet M, Degos JD, Gherardi RK. Central nervous system disease in patients with macrophagic myofasciitis. Brain. 2001 May; 124(Pt 5): 974-83. 42. Shoenfeld Y, Agmon-Levin N. ‘ASIA’ – autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. J Autoimmun. 2011 Feb; 36(1): 4-8. 43. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Mechanisms of aluminum adjuvant toxicity and autoimmunity in pediatric populations. Lupus. 2012 Feb; 21(2): 223-30. 44. Garay PA, McAllister AK. Novel roles for immune molecules in neural development: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders. Front Synaptic Neurosci. 2010 Sep 8; 2:136. 45. Stevens B, Allen NJ, Vazquez LE, Howell GR, Christopherson KS, Nouri N,Micheva KD, Mehalow AK, Huberman AD, Stafford B, Sher A, Litke AM, Lambris JD, Smith SJ, John SW, Barres BA. The classical complement cascade mediates CNS synapse elimination. Cell. 2007 Dec 14; 131(6):1164- 78. 46. Boulanger LM. Immune proteins in brain development and synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2009 Oct 15; 64(1): 93-109. 47. Besedovsky HO, del Rey A. Central and peripheral cytokines mediate immune-brain connectivity. Neurochem Res. 2011 Jan; 36(1): 1-6. 48. Besedovsky HO, Rey A. Brain Cytokines as Integrators of the Immune–Neuroendocrine Network. [in]: Lajtha A, Besedovsky HO, Galoyan A (eds). Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology. Springer. 2008; p. 3-17. 49. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov; 105(11):1489-99. 50. Kieć-Świerczyńska M. Mercury as an allergizing factor. Med Pracy. 1996; 48, 1: 77- 9. (Polish) 51. Majewska MD. Marie Curie Chair, Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System, Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw. Nieznany Świat. 2010; 230: 62-70. 52. http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0073.htm. [2011 Dec 10]. 53. http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/id US108558+03-Jan-2008+PRN 20080103. [2011 Dec 10]. 54. von Kries R, Toschke AM, Strassburger K, Kundi M, Kalies H, Nennstiel U, Jorch G, Rosenbauer J, Giani G. Sudden and unexpected deaths after the administration of hexavalent vaccines (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, hepatitis B, Haemophilius influenzae type b): is there a signal? Eur J Pediatr. 2005 Feb; 164(2): 61-9. 55. Majewska MD, Urbanowicz E, Rok-Bujko P, Namyslowska I, Mierzejewski P.Agedependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010; 70(2): 196-208. 56. Menkes JH. Textbook of Child neurology. Balitiomore; Williams & Wilkins 1995. 57. Sidor K, Horwath A. Neurological complications following vaccination (Polish). Nowa Pediatr. 1999; 16: 29-31. 58. Aydin H, Ozgul E, Agildere AM. Acute necrotizing encephalopathy secondary to diphtheria, tetanus toxoid and whole-cell pertussis vaccination: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2010 Jul; 40(7): 1281-4. 59. Dunin-Wąsowicz D, Milewska-Bobula B, Idzik M, Kapusta M, Kasprzyk-Obara J, Pakuła-Kościesza E. Epilepsy and seizures in infants in the course of cytomegalovirus infection – a problem of preventive vaccination. Neurol Dziec. 2002; 11, 21: 29- 42. (Polish) 60. Girard M. Autoimmune hazards of hepatitis B vaccine. Autoimmun Rev. 2005 Feb; 4(2): 96- 100. 61. Souayah N, Nasar A, Suri MF, Qureshi AI. Guillain-Barré syndrome after vaccination in United States: data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Food and Drug Administration Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (1990-2005). J Clin Neuromuscul Dis. 2009 Sep; 11(1): 1-6. 62. Souayah N, Michas-Martin PA, Nasar A, Krivitskaya N, Yacoub HA, Khan H,Qureshi AI. Guillain-Barré syndrome after Gardasil vaccination: data from Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System 2006-2009. Vaccine. 2011 Jan 29; 29(5): 886-9. 63. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update: Guillain-Barré syndrome among recipients of Menactra meningococcal conjugate vaccine—United States, June 2005- September 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Oct 20; 55(41):1120-4. Erratum in: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Nov 3; 55(43): 1177. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 141 64. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtm l/mm5541a2.htm Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (MMWR). 2006;55(41):1120-4. 65. Friedrich F. Neurologic complications associated with oral poliovirus vaccine and genomic variability of the vaccine strains after multiplication in humans. Acta Virol. 1998 Jun; 42(3):187-94. 66. Michalak S. Postvaccinal complications within the nervous system. In: Second National Symposium ‘Adverse effects of drugs. Poznań 16.IV.2004, Materials Research. 2004; 37-41. (Polish) 67. Modrzejewska M, Machalińska A, Karczewicz D, Czeszyńska BM, Rudnicki J. Rapid progression of retinopathy of prematurity after vaccination BCG – case report. Pediatr Pol. 2008; 83, 3: 290-4. (Polish) 68. Zieliński A, Czarkowski MP, Rudowska J. Monitoring of vaccinal adverse events in Poland Pediatr Pol. 2002; 78(2): 91-8. (Polish). 69. Zwolska Z, Augustynowicz-Kopeć E, Zabost A, Ziółkowski J, Buchwald J, Płończak M, Walas W, Ziebiński M. The application of modern microbiological methods for diagnosis of complications after BCG vaccination. Description of the cases. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2004; 72: 508-10. 70. Zinka B, Rauch E, Buettner A, Ruëff F, Penning R. Unexplained cases of sudden infant death shortly after hexavalent vaccination. Vaccine. 2006 Jul 26; 24(31-32): 5779-80. 71. Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. One-size fits all? Vaccine. 2011. doi:10.1016/ j.vaccine. 2011. 11.053). 72. Aiello AE, Larson EL. What is the evidence for a causal link between hygiene and infections? Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Feb; 2(2): 103-10. 73. http//www.whale.to/m/incao.htlm, Hepatitis B Vaccination Testimony in Ohio – March 1, 1999 74. http://www.euvac.net/graphies/euvac/vaccinati on/sweden.html. [cited 2011 August 8]