Your Immune System, How It Works And How Vaccines Damage It

Your Immune System, How It Works And How Vaccines Damage It

“Chronic illnesses are now so common, having a sick child seems to be the “new normal.”Children are supposed to be vibrant, healthy, free of disease.” – Janet Levatin MD, Pediatrician.

The Theory

Medical theory is that if your child is exposed to a weakened version of the disease, he will produce antibodies to that disease and become ‘immune’, so that he will never contract the illness.
At first glance, this sounds like a solid principle, BUT it only focuses on one small aspect of the immune system, the antibodies, and fails to look at all the other functions responsible for protecting your child’s health.

So, how does the immune system work?

The immune system is also made up of the skin, mucous membranes in the nose and throat, ears and eyes, nasal hairs, saliva, the spleen, intestines, tonsils, the thymus gland and even the brain. All of these parts work together in a holistic way to bring about a whole body immunity, which is only in part to do with antibodies.

• The skin acts as a barrier to prevent bacteria entering the body. It also filters out toxins through fever, which is the purpose of a fever when your child is ill.
• The nasal hairs prevent foreign particles from travelling up the nose, and the mucous membranes excrete a substance which is anti-bacterial.
• Tonsils help prevent respiratory diseases and illnesses such as Polio, and saliva contains substances which destroy and neutralise microbes.
• The spleen and intestines, among other organs, deposit fats and vitamins around the body and protect against viral and bacterial invasion.
• The thymus gland produces thymus cells, known as ‘T’ cells, which are antibodies to infection.
• There are various glands (nodes) in the body that drain it of toxins and useless material. For instance, the cervical nodes drain the head, neck and chest.
• The pituitary gland in the brain directs all of the systems above, so if the brain goes wrong, so does the immune system. It sends electrical impulses to all areas of the body, stimulating cell re-generation and muscle growth. These electrical impulses also stimulate the thymus gland – the centre of immune function.

What effect does vaccination have on this immune function?

Vaccination – the act of artificially acquiring a disease so as to become immune to it – is flawed in a number of ways. Firstly, a vaccine contains many hazardous chemicals and not just the viruses to immunise against. These each have their own toxic affect on the body. Secondly, the route of entry is different to a naturally occurring disease. Most natural diseases would enter through the mouth or the nasal cavity, not the skin.
Vaccination breaks the skin with a needle and injects foreign matter into the blood supply.
This bypasses the skin’s role in immune function, as well as the tonsils, the mucous membranes, and so on.

Normally, the body produces extra antibodies after being primed by the tonsils that there is impending infection. Therefore, if the infection takes hold, there will be an army of white blood cells, ready to neutralise the infection.
In the case of vaccination, this infection goes straight to the blood, with no prior build up for the body, and there are no extra immune cells to deal with it.
Also, with vaccination there is more than one disease present (e.g. measles, mumps, rubella all in one), whereas naturally a child would never contract 3 diseases at the same time. This puts additional strain on the immune system.

What problems can this cause?

Injection of vaccine via this unnatural route can use up 70% of the immune system’s resources, instead of the usual 3 to 4% with a wild occurring disease (according to Cynthia Cournoyer, ‘What About Immunizations?’, Dennis Nelson Publishers, 1991).
Because the body has no extra antibodies waiting to counter the vaccine, it can go into overdrive in an attempt to deal with the situation, taking much needed vitamins away from bones and other organs, to use for the production of more antibodies. This means that the other vital systems go short on vitamins, in extreme cases leading to bone fractures caused by the immune response leaching vitamins to cope with the vaccine. This lack of vitamins can also cause bruising and retinal bleeding and haemorrhaging, which is why some vaccine damaged babies have been falsely labelled as ‘shaken baby syndrome’ cases. These type of vaccine injuries are similar to those caused by trauma.

The massive surge of antibodies created by the vaccine can also cause the body to become hypersensitive and this is responsible for the increase in allergies and auto-immune diseases. Allergies are an over-exposure to toxic elements which the body is unable to cleanse itself of.
If the adrenals, which include the pancreas, the pituitary gland and the spleen, become over-stimulated, for instance, by vaccination, this can cause the body to become toxic and unable to regulate itself. This has been linked to heart disease, diabetes, asthma and bronchitis, to name a few. Over-stimulating the adrenals also causes a decrease in circulation of blood round the body, and atrophying of vascular vessels.
It is in this state of dysfunction and chemical overload, from vaccines, pollution, junk food, pharmaceutical drugs and so on, that our bodies become less able to stay healthy.

‘When the body is in its ideal state of harmony, there is no need for “immunity.” In such a state of harmony and balance, the thymus functions properly as the central regulator for the proper digestion of elements and all that is taken into the body is digested and excreted.’ – (Stonebridge Associated Colleges, 2005).

In the time immediately following vaccination, when extra vitamins are being used up to fight the vaccine, this may actually make the person more susceptible to the disease. For instance, in the Merck, Sharp and Dohme LTD product information for HIB vaccine, it states: ‘Cases of Haemophilus B disease may occur in the weeks after vaccination’, and in Lederle Hibtiter information sheet, ‘Cases of HIB disease, although rare, may occur after vaccination.’ This is known as ‘PROVOCATION disease’, i.e. disease caused by vaccine.
Live vaccines are more likely to pass on the disease to their recipient or his close contacts, as the viruses are excreted in urine, faeces and saliva for upto 3 weeks after each shot.
The polio vaccine was changed from the live oral vaccine to part of the injectable, killed 5 in 1, because the only cases of polio in western countries were caused by the vaccine.

Vaccine caused diseases are often more severe than the naturally occurring disease. For instance, ATYPICAL measles, only got by vaccinated children, is much more serious because the vaccine suppresses the child’s rash, which is his means of excreting the toxins, and this leads to the toxins being pushed deeper into the body and affecting the major organs and sometimes the brain, as atypical measles encephalitis.
Vaccine viruses can also attach themselves to cells, organs and brain tissue and cause cancers, disabilities and brain injury, as in the case of a boy who became autistic and had a seizure disorder after his MMR jab at 15 months. Great Ormand Street Children’s Hospital tested him at 13 years of age and found remains of vaccine viruses in the injured parts of his brain. (The Sunday Express, 6 October 2002).
Antibodies to brain tissue have also been found in blood tests of autistic children.

Disease Mutations

Even with inactivated vaccines, it is possible for the killed virus or bacteria to mutate into a different form of the disease. For instance, a 16 year old Canadian girl died of Meningitis B after her boyfriend had been given the Meningitis C vaccine. Lab tests confirmed that the vaccine can mutate into B form and infect both the recipient and his or her close contacts. (Pulse, doctor’s magazine, 20th November 1999).
Large numbers of chronic diseases have evolved in the place of infectious disease, since the introduction of mass vaccination, including ME, Lupus, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Autism (previously known as Kanner Syndrome, discovered by Dr. Kanner in the 1940’s), MS, Ebola virus, AIDS, Lichen Planus, Vulvodynia and other hypersensitivity conditions, not to mention the rife and uncontrollable rates of cancer, heart disease, asthma, eczema and other allergies. Even meningitis was extremely rare before the 20th century.

We are killing ourselves in our quest to ‘prevent’ childhood illness, as mother nature is stronger than man, so tampering with immune function can have disastrous consequences for all.

Vaccines Cause Immune Suppression

Immunostimulation Versus Immunosuppression after Multiple Vaccinations: the Woes of Therapeutic Vaccine Development

Three articles in this issue of Clinical Cancer Research show how multiple vaccinations can lead to immunosuppression. Moreover, two studies in patients show that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant immunostimulant to different kind of vaccines can lead to adverse outcome in terms of relapse-free and overall survival. Modulation of regulatory T-cell activity may be required to overcome this outcome and may be crucial for the successful development of therapeutic vaccines.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):6745–7)

Cancer Patients Injected With Cancer Vaccine Caused ‘Early Melanoma Deaths’

Ninety-seven patients with resected melanoma (stage II-IV) were enrolled, stratified by stage, and randomized to receive a cellular melanoma vaccine with or without GM-CSF. The primary endpoint was delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to melanoma cells. Antibody responses, peripheral leukocyte counts, and survival were also examined.

Results: The GM-CSF arm showed enhanced antibody responses with an increase in IgM titer against the TA90 antigen and increased TA90 immune complexes. This arm also had diminished antimelanoma cell delayed-type hypersensitivity response. Peripheral blood leukocyte profiles showed increases in eosinophils and basophils with decreased monocytes in the GM-CSF arm. These immune changes were accompanied by an increase in early melanoma deaths and a trend toward worse survival with GM-CSF.

Conclusion: These data suggest that GM-CSF is not helpful as an immune adjuvant in this dose and schedule and raise concern that it may be harmful. Based on the discordant findings of an immune endpoint and clinical outcome, the use of such surrogate endpoints in selecting treatments for further evaluation must be done with a great deal of caution.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):7029–35)

Partial CD4 Depletion Reduces Regulatory T Cells Induced by Multiple Vaccinations

Results: Multiple vaccinations, rather than boosting the immune response, significantly reduced therapeutic efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy and were associated with an increased frequency and absolute number of CD3+CD4+Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Anti-CD4 administration reduced the absolute number of Treg cells 9-fold. Effector T-cells generated from anti-CD4–treated mice were significantly (P < 0.0001) more therapeutic in adoptive transfer studies than T cells from multiply vaccinated animals with a full complement of CD4+ cells.

Conclusion: These results suggest that CD4+ Treg cells limit the efficacy of multiple vaccinations and that timed partial depletion of CD4+ T cells may reduce suppression and “tip-the-balance” in favor of therapeutic antitumor immunity. The recent failure of large phase III cancer vaccine clinical trials, wherein patients received multiple vaccines, underscores the potential clinical relevance of these findings.

Source: (Clin Cancer Res 2009;15(22):6881–90)

1 in 5 Americans Suffer From Allergies

If springtime breezes bring you sniffles, you can take comfort in the knowledge that you are not alone.

For reasons that researchers do not fully understand, allergies to pollen, dust, pet dander and food have become more prevalent among Americans in recent decades. Today, one out of every five Americans suffers from allergies, according to the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.

“We don’t know why the incidence of allergies is on the rise,” said Maya Jerath, M.D., Ph.D., an assistant professor in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine and director of the UNC Allergy and Immunology Clinic.

Nor do researchers understand why an allergy develops in the first place. “That has baffled people and continues to baffle people in this field a lot,” she said.

An allergy is an immune reaction to a harmless substance, such as a pollen grain or peanut protein. Instead of ignoring the substance, the body produces antibodies to mount a fight against it. Allergy symptoms can range from itchy eyes and sneezing to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions.

The causes of allergies remain elusive in part because the immune system’s role is complex, Jerath said. The system must defend the body from countless foreign invaders in food, water and the air around you.

Significantly for allergy sufferers, the immune system must also learn to distinguish particles that are dangerous from those that are not. For most people, this learning occurs during early childhood.

“If it doesn’t get adequate exposure to certain things, those regulatory mechanisms don’t get set up,” Jerath said.

For that reason, some researchers believe that a lack of exposure to microorganisms early in life may precondition a person to allergies. This explanation, called the “hygiene hypothesis,” suggests that growing up surrounded by many other children, dirt or livestock helps the immune system develop a tolerance to harmless irritants.

Source: Physorg.com, by Sara Peach, 24 February 2010.

The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes

A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature. A PubMed search from 1979 to 2013 revealed seventy one (71) documented cases. The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included influenza (21 cases), human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases), hepatitis A or B (8 cases), rabies (5 cases), measles (5 cases), rubella (5 cases), yellow fever (3 cases), anthrax (2 cases), meningococcus (2 cases) and tetanus (2 cases). The vast majority of post-vaccination CNS demyelinating syndromes, are related to influenza vaccination and this could be attributed to the high percentage of the population that received the vaccine during the HI1N1 epidemia from 2009 to 2012. Usually the symptoms of the CNS demyelinating syndrome appear few days following the immunization (mean: 14.2 days) but there are cases where the clinical presentation was delayed (more than 3 weeks or even up to 5 months post-vaccination) (approximately a third of all the reported cases).

In terms of the clinical presentation and the affected CNS areas, there is a great diversity among the reported cases of post-vaccination acute demyelinating syndromes. Optic neuritis was the prominent clinical presentation in 38 cases, multifocal disseminated demyelination in 30, myelitis in 24 and encephalitis in 17. Interestingly in a rather high proportion of the patients (and especially following influenza and human papiloma virus vaccination-HPV) the dominant localizations of demyelination were the optic nerves and the myelon, presenting as optic neuritis and myelitis (with or without additional manifestations of ADEM), reminiscent to neuromyelitic optica (or, more generally, the NMO-spectrum of diseases). Seven patients suffered an NMO-like disease following HPV and we had two similar cases in our Center. One patient with post-vaccination ADEM, subsequently developed NMO.

Overal, the risk of a demyelinating CNS disease following vaccination, although non-negligible, is relatively low. The risk of onset or relapse of CNS demyelination following infections against which the vaccines are aimed to protect, is substantially higher and the benefits of vaccinations surpass the potential risks of CNS inflammation. This does not in any way exempt us from “learning” the lessons taught by the reported cases and searching new and safer ways to improve vaccination techniques and increase their safety profile.

Source: Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 13, issue 3, March 2014.

MODERN CHILDREN ARE SICKER THAN THEY WERE IN THE 1940’s AND 50’s

“In 1947 I was a nursery nurse student working in a nursery for little babies whose mothers needed to work as they were illegitimate and so no fathers were getting a wage.

The babies were very well and very sweet.  There were colds and flu occasionally and scabies now and again.

There was NO asthma, eczema, epilepsy, hyperactivity, cardiac disease or cot death.  Cot death started in 1957 after DPT was started.

You need to be in your 80’s to remember what life was like.  Babies died of pneumonia because the houses were so cold but NOT of the awful diseases they have now.”

Mrs B – Retired Nursery Nurse.

Autoimmune Tissue Scurvy Misdiagnosed as Child Abuse

Abstract
Requests from distressed parents and relatives seeking help after having been falsely accused by doctors of injuring their children are not uncommon. Viraland parasitic infections and vaccines cause an autoimmune disorder, Tissue Scurvy, misdiagnosed as child abuse. This report presents the evidence. Method. Relevant hospital and laboratory reports of three children were examined for evidence of Tissue Scurvy as the cause of the neurological lesions, fractures, bruises and hemorrhages found on them. Results. In all the cases in which appropriate histories and tests were done there was evidence that the doctors either misinterpreted the laboratory evidence or they were unaware of the significance of abnormal tests suggesting Tissue Scurvy as the cause. Conclusion. Some doctors are unaware of the pathophysiological processes of autoimmunity, haemostasis and osteogenesis and are misdiagnosing vaccine induced Tissue Scurvy, absence of Vitamin C within the cell, as Non-accidental Injury.

Full paper here: http://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.cmr.20130206.17.pdf

Source: Michael D Innis, Autoimmune Tissue Scurvy Misdiagnosed as Child Abuse, Clinical Medicine Research. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 154-157. doi: 10.11648/j.cmr.20130206.17

Biology Video Explains Benefit of Fever and Childhood Diseases (it is pro-vaccine but interesting). Section starts at minute 33.43

Section on how fever kills viruses and how childhood diseases are ‘vital’. Segment is only tiny but interesting, even if video is pro-vaccine. (VAN does not agree that vaccines are harmless or that antibodies always mean you are immune).

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Ben Swann Reports on The CDC, Vaccines and Autism

Ben Swann Reports on The CDC, Vaccines and Autism

I encourage whoever reads this to check out this article and video on The CDC, Vaccines and Autism: Truth In Media: The CDC, Vaccines and Autism . I tried to post the video here, but I couldn’t find a direct link that was in the right format for WordPress.

Here is the article without the video along with the two links to the documents from Dr. Thompson who is the CDC whistleblower regarding the issue of the relation of the number of Autism cases of African American males under the age of 36 months who received the MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella) vaccine.

The debate over whether vaccines cause autism has become one of the most controversial disputes in this country. In this episode of Truth In Media, the focus is not on whether vaccines are responsible for autism. The issue at hand here is a study that was performed at the CDC and the question of whether the agency was complicit in a cover-up over a decade ago.

For nearly two years, Truth In Media has explored the allegations of Dr. William Thompson, a CDC scientist who came forward in 2014, hired a whistleblower attorney, and claimed that important data regarding a study on vaccines and autism was eliminated.
Thompson’s claims have led to a divide among Americans, with some believing that Thompson’s allegations are credible and should be investigated further, and others convinced that the documents Thompson handed over mean absolutely nothing. In December 2015, Ben Swann was the first journalist to obtain the documents from Congressman Bill Posey.

In this episode, Swann further examines not only Thompson’s claims, but also the documents related to the study, with the assistance of doctors, journalists, authors and former CDC specialists who joined Swann in discussing every document that was handed over.

Update, January 26, 2016, 2:16 p.m.: Due to a high volume of requests, the CDC documents given to Truth In Media are available below, split into two folders.

Click here to download Folder 1.

Click here to download Folder 2.

Vaccines: An Attorney’s Viewpoint

Vaccines: An Attorney’s Viewpoint

SOTN Editor’s Note:
The following exposé on vaccine safety and their inherent dangers is noteworthy because it is written by a Washington State attorney who really understands the profound legal ramifications. James Deal, J.D. wastes no time in completely deconstructing the many false assertions that are routinely presented by those government and corporate entities promoting  a super-vaccination agenda.

More importantly, Attorney Deal furnishes the American people with the substantive legal arguments which can serve as the basis for lawsuits against both the Pharmaceutical Industry and the U.S. Federal Government.  When considered in the aggregate, the implicit points of law delineated below constitute a legal foundation for a clear-cut criminal indictment.  Great harm is being inflicted on the children throughout the country by mandatory, state-sponsored vaccination programs.

No entity under the sun has the right or lawful authority to arrogate power unto itself to harm or injure, sicken or infect, paralyze or kill the people of this nation.  Not only is such conduct a serious breach of the social contract, it represents a profound violation of the public trust.  Vaccination programs therefore break the inviolable bond between the citizenry and the government.


You Cannot Generalize Pro or Con About All Vaccines

James Robert Deal J.D.

justice will prevail

The report below was recently sent to every representative and senator in the Washington legislature and to all the newspapers in Washington. Attorney James Deal believes that the personal or philosophical objection will be retained at the state level.

“They have all the money, but we have all the good ideas. If we persevere, we will succeed.”
~ James Robert Deal, J.D.

***

Anti-vaxxers oppose all vaccines. Pro-vaxxers favor all vaccines. No, it is not that simple. Pro-vaxxers admit that certain groups should not receive certain vaccines and that vaccine injury does happen, although it is “rare”.

Most so-called anti-vaxxers actually favor some vaccines but oppose others. Most oppose giving many vaccines all at one time. Most say they are only asking for safer vaccines.

Amid the name calling, there is a reasonable middle ground. Dr. Mark Geier, M.D., Ph.D., associated with Johns Hopkins and the National Institutes of Health, author of over a hundred peer reviewed journal articles, is a moderate we should pay attention to. (Go to YouTube and search for “Dr. Mark Geier Thimerosal”.)

Dr. Geier supports the measles-only vaccine, but he opposes the MMR, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, because it has caused confirmed adverse reactions and death. Likewise, Dr. Gregory Poland, of the Mayo Clinic holds that the MMR is largely ineffective.

It is lazy language to say that vaccines are “safe and effective”, because that implies that all vaccines are safe and effective for all people. In fact, some vaccines have done great harm. If you doubt this, read the findings of the Vaccine Court, which has paid out around $3.0 billion to children for adverse reactions which admits were caused by vaccines. Go to www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/opinion-search and search for “measles-mumps-rubella” or “influenza”.  And read the package inserts that come with vaccine boxes. You may also read them online atwww.immunize.org/packageinserts

In Europe only the polio vaccine is mandatory. Dr. Geier supports vaccination against polio. However, he is adamantly opposed to flu vaccines. The flu vaccine given almost universally uses Thimerosal as a preservative. Each dose of Thimerosal contains 25 micrograms of ethyl mercury. Multiplied by Avogadro’s Number, 25 mcg = 75 quadrillion atoms of mercury.

25 x 10-6 / 200 x 6.02 x 10-23

10-6 x 10-23 = 10-17

25 / 200 x 6.02 = .7525

.7525 x 10-17 = 7.5 x 10-16 = 75 x 10-15 =

75,000,000,000,000,000 = 75 quadrillion

The only safe amount of mercury is zero, and using mercury as a preservative is reckless, especially since it is given yearly, even to pregnant mothers, even though the package insert admits that the MMR has not been tested for fetal safety in pregnant women. Mercury passes through the placenta and into the fetus. There are flu vaccines which are mercury free.

The flu vaccine is big business, particularly the ones containing mercury. Some 300 million doses are sold, while only 20 million doses of all other vaccines are sold. In 1986 the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program made vaccine manufacturers immune from most liability, and in 2011 the Supreme Court twisted the plain language of the Vaccine Act to make vaccine manufacturers, hospitals, and physicians completely immune from absolutely ALL liability, reasoning that vaccines in general – using the language of the Court – are “unavoidably unsafe”.

Dr. Geier points out that all flu vaccines are illegal. All vaccines must pass two double blind tests for safety and effectiveness. Because a new vaccine is developed each year in advance of the flu season, and because each vaccine assumes a prediction of which strains of flu will be present, there is no time to two double blind studies, which would take several years.

Our vaccines can contain aluminum, formaldehyde, MSG, antibiotics, and monkey kidney cells. The effort to develop safe and effective vaccines should continue, however, we must admit that we are still at a primitive stage in the development of vaccines, which is why mandating vaccination makes little sense.

The unvaccinated are blamed for spreading disease, however, every person injected with the MMR and other attenuated live virus vaccines develops a vaccine version of the disease, sheds viruses, and can infect others. It is not only the unvaccinated who are spreading measles, which is another reason why mandating vaccination makes little sense.

Measles is not a trifling malady, however, it is not Ebola. Measles cases and deaths from measles declined sharply before the measles vaccine was introduced in 1963. Relatively few die from measles.

Since 1986, Health & Human Services reports 669 deaths from the DTP, 84 deaths from flu vaccines, 80 deaths from the DTaP, 57 deaths from the MMR, 54 deaths from the Hepatitis B vaccine, and many more non-fatal adverse reactions. The science of vaccination is still in a primitive stage, and it is inappropriate for the state to force injection of a possibly harmful drug on behalf of mega-corporations which are completely immune from all liability for adverse reactions.

Further, one who is vaccinated sheds viruses, and so one can be infected not only by those who contract a wild case of measles but also by those recently vaccinated. Moreover, the MMR is not particularly effective “In an October 2011 outbreak in Canada, over 50% of the 98 individuals had received two doses of measles vaccine”.

The Los Angeles Times and the Everett Herald printed an article entitled “Vaccine ignorance proving deadly and contagious”. It was written not by physicians or scientists but by prominent members of the Council on Foreign Relations. It contains numerous inaccuracies – scientific, historical, and legal.

Thinking people support vaccines which are safe, effective, and necessary. Conversely, thinking people should oppose those vaccines which are not safe, not effective, or not necessary.

Law school taught me to break a question down into its component parts: Which vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary, and for whom? How deadly is the disease to be prevented? How likely are adverse reactions and how bad can they be? The CFR authors are uncritical cheer leaders for the $30 billion per year vaccine business, exhorting us to take all recommended vaccines unquestioningly and by the dozens and dozens.

The authors repeat slanders made against Dr. Andrew Wakefield, which were completely false. A recent NOVA special, “Vaccines – Calling the Shots”, repeats these now-disproven slanders, a case of lazy journalism. Recall that Wakefield wrote in the Lancet in 1998 that colitis and autism spectrum  disorders are linked to the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine then in use.

Wakefield was denounced as a vaccine denier, although he supported and still supports the single dose measles vaccine, as well as other vaccines. He only opposed the MMR. Multiple vaccines given simultaneously can be more harmful than single vaccines. For questioning the safety of one vaccine, Wakefield was “lynched” by GlaxoSmithCline and the medical establishment. Wakefield’s results have been replicated in at least 28 studies done by scientists in other countries. Further, Wakefield has great insight in how to treat children who have had adverse vaccine reactions by treating the gastro-intestinal disease that accompanies adverse reactions.

Wakefield was expelled from the medical profession in Great Britain, however, John Walker-Smith, one of the co-authors of the offending 1998 study, challenged his expulsion and was recently reinstated, an indication that Wakefield could be reinstated if he applied. Wakefield works in Texas as a researcher and is suing Brian Deer, Fiona Godlee and the British Medical Journal for falsely accusing him of fraud.

The CFR authors also seem to be unaware that Wakefield was further vindicated recently when Dr. William Thompson of the CDC “came out”. Thompson was one of the authors of a CDC study which denied any causal link between vaccines and autism. Thompson admitted that in a 2004 article he and other authors had intentionally excluded already collected data, data which would have reversed their published conclusion that there is no vaccine-autism link. The mainstream media has glossed over the story of Wakefield’s vindication and Thomson’s confession.

A mother is not a vaccine denier if she questions the safety of a vaccine containing mercury, aluminum, MSG, antibiotics, eggs, or formaldehyde. Or Beta HCG hormone. Or the urabi virus . She is not a denier if her child is frail or has already had an adverse vaccine reaction and she chooses to opt her child out. She is not a denier if she questions giving children 49 injections of 14 vaccines by age six, including a vaccine at birth for hepatitis B, a disease usually infecting IV drug users. Nor is she a denier if she declines the CDC recommendation that she take the flu vaccine (containing mercury) when she is pregnant, even though the flu vaccine is not tested for safety for pregnant women and fetuses and the FDA advises it be used “only if clearly needed”.

Most are not harmed by vaccines, but some are. For proof read the decisions of the Vaccine Court, which has paid out some $3.0 billion and has acknowledged that specific vaccines have caused specific harms. See the disclosure inserts which comes in vaccine boxes. Ask your pharmacist for copies. Multi-dose flu vaccine contains a whopping 25 micrograms of mercury per dose, included as a preservative. That’s 74 quadrillion atoms of mercury. The single dose version contains under 1.0 micrograms, only 3 quadrillion atoms – still too much for me. The mercury in the flu vaccine passes through the placenta and is especially toxic to fetus and infant because their cells are dividing rapidly. Mercury affects cell division. The use of mercury as a preservative should be banned.

Some vaccines are ineffective. Discover Magazine reported that 73 percent of kids aged 7 to 10 who caught pertussis in 2012 in Washington had been fully vaccinated. The same is true for the measles vaccine. A child vaccinated with a live virus vaccine experiences a mild version of the infection and is thus contagious and infects others. Outbreaks of measles and pertussis probably come from the vaccinated, not from the unvaccinated. The artificial immunity conferred by vaccines wears off, and boosters are required, making vaccines a cash machine that generates $30 billion yearly.

A reasonable question to ask is this: If vaccines worked, those who favor indiscriminant vaccination should not object to those who choose not to be vaccinated.

The problem worsened in 1986. Before that date vaccine liability had always been decided according to state law regardless of which court the case was brought in. 1986 Congress federalized all vaccine liability claims. A law was passed requiring that all claims for vaccine harm go to a special “Vaccine Court”, where there was and is no jury and no pre-trial discovery. The statute of limitations is tricky and short, and the burden to prove a specific vaccination harmed a child is arbitrarily difficult. Vaccine makers are shielded against general liability and even for badly designing a vaccine. Claims are paid out of a fund built up with a tax on each vaccine dose sold. This has led vaccine makers to become reckless, to do insufficient testing of vaccines, and to industrialize the vaccine business.

Before 1986, vaccination had been a technology aimed at the most deadly and contagious diseases. Vaccines were to be put into use only after careful testing. Vaccines were and are needed when a potentially fatal disease progresses so fast the body cannot respond before death occurs. Because adverse reactions are inevitable, vaccines should not be used to prevent diseases which are rarely fatal. However, vaccine makers, newly exempt from all liability, turned necessary vaccination against the most deadly diseases into a mass-production money machine targeted against any and every conceivable disease.

Vaccine makers ship vaccines banned in the West to the Third World, such as the urabi strain MMR vaccine, the dangerous partially attenuated oral polio vaccine used in Pakistan, and a tetanus vaccine which causes miscarriages – none of which would inspire one to trust what vaccine makers say.

All drugs and all vaccines involve some risk which the CDC admits in its assurances that serious harm or death is rare. If the risk of taking the vaccine is greater than the risk of enduring the disease, one has the right to refuse to take the vaccine. Adults can refuse vaccination for themselves. They are the guardians of their children. They know their children’s frailties and previous bad experiences with vaccines. They have the right to opt their children out. If vaccinations work, there should be no objection if some choose not to be vaccinated.

Washington has recently made it more difficult for parents to decline vaccination for their children. Unvaccinated children can be sent home if there is an outbreak of a childhood disease in his or her school, which is odd since the CDC admits, in the case of pertussis, it is vaccinated children who are spreading the disease.

Despite all the evidence that some vaccines cause serious harm, many so-called experts exhort us that all vaccines are safe and effective, and most people stubbornly believe them. Why? Mark Twain explained it best “It’s much easier to fool someone than to convince them they have been fooled.

Examine the evidence for yourself and do your own thinking. Administration of vaccine in mass quantities should not be mandatory, and some vaccines should be banned outright.

The connection between the fluoride scam and the vaccine scam is that they are both run by mega corporations without ethical standards.

We should not be afraid to follow the science where ever it logically goes and be outspoken on other contaminations, such as Roundup, which I just learned is sprayed on non-GMO wheat as a dessicant, so most non-organic bread is loaded with Roundup.

SOTN: Alternative News & Commentary

Polish Study of Neurologic Adverse Events Following Vaccination

Polish Study of Neurologic Adverse Events Following Vaccination

Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 129 Neurologic adverse events following vaccination Sienkiewicz D.*, Kułak W., Okurowska-Zawada B., Paszko-Patej G. Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation of the Medical University of Bialystok, Poland

ABSTRACT __________________________________________________________________________________________

The present review summarizes data on neurological adverse events following vaccination in the relation to intensity, time of onset, taking into account the immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. The authors described the physiological development of the immune system and the possible immune system responses following vaccination. Toxic property of thimerosal – a mercury-containing preservative used in some vaccines was presented. The neurological complications after vaccination were described. The role of vaccination in the natural course of infectious diseases and the current immunizations schedule in Poland was discussed.

Key words: vaccination, neurologic adverse events following vaccination, immunization schedules __________________________________________________________________________________________ *Corresponding author: Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medical University of Białystok 17 Waszyngtona str, 15-836 Białystok Poland E-mail: sdorota11@op.pl (Dorota Sienkiewicz) Received: 29.01.2012 Accepted: 22.02.2012 Progress in Health Sciences Vol. 2(1) 2012·pp 129-141. © Medical University of Bialystok, PolandProg Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 130

INTRODUCTION

Adverse reactions In developed countries, the schedules of mandatory and recommended vaccination for children contain more and more components with a specific emphasis on the co-administration of multiple antigens in combined form. This direction on the one hand provides many benefits and on the other carries an increased risk of side effects, the immunopathogenesis of which is not fully explained in many cases [1]. An adverse event following immunization (AEFI) is an undesirable side effect occurring after the administration of a vaccine [2]. It is a temporary, local or general reaction of the organism to an administered vaccine. A postvaccinal complication (PC) is associated with an excessive or pathological reaction with the characteristics of postvaccinal disease, which in extreme cases can lead to permanent damage, threat to life or even death [3]. Complications affecting the nervous system raise the most controversy; the more so, as the children subjected to vaccination are healthy.

In annex no. 1 to the Ordinance of the Minister of Health of 23rd December 2002 on adverse events following vaccination (Journal of Law from 31/12/2002, no. 241, item 2097, as amended. Journal of Law from 2005, no. 232, item 1973), the following categories of AEFI are presented [4].

1) Local reactions, including:

  • a) local reactions after the BCG vaccine,
  • b) swelling,
  • c) lymphadenopathy,
  • d) abscess at the injection site;

2) Postvaccinal adverse events of the central nervous system:

  • a) encephalopathy,
  • b) febrile convulsions,
  • c) non-febrile convulsions,
  • d) paralytic poliomyelitis caused by vaccine virus,
  • e) encephalitis,
  • f) meningitis,
  • g) Guillain – Barre syndrome;

3) Other adverse events following immunization:

  • a) joint pain,
  • b) hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode
  • c) fever above 39⁰C
  • d) thrombocytopenia,
  • e) continuous inconsolable crying.

Other classifications of postvaccinal reactions can be found in the literature, some of which put an emphasis on the neurological symptoms, while others emphasize the immunological mechanisms.

Byers et al. describing neurological complications, have included as “minor” – mild or severe postvaccinal reactions, occurring up to 48 hours after injection and disappearing without leaving permanent sequelae, the following:

  • prolonged crying,
  • restlessness and hyperactivity,
  • apathy with increased sleepiness,
  • high body temperature,
  • a temporary mild increase in intracranial pressure manifested by a throbbing crown of the head,
  • “cerebral cry” (sometimes included among “major” complications) [5-7].

Among the “major” neurological complications, usually manifesting more than 48 hours after vaccination and which might be the cause of permanent damage to the central nervous system (CNS), the following are listed:

  • seizures – especially if there is no increase in body temperature,
  • hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes,
  • postvaccinal encephalitis,
  • postvaccinal encephalopathy [6, 8-11]
  • and autism [10, 12-14].

Konior and Strózik [7] have proposed their own classification of postvaccinal reactions taking into account the contribution of the immune system in the vaccinated children. They divided the adverse events into two groups:

1. related to the immune system – patients with immunodeficiencies (mainly cellular) and atopic patients with hypersensitivity to certain vaccine components

2. unrelated to the immune system – patients whose postvaccinal reactions may be related to the toxic effects of the vaccine components or may result from the vaccine virus turning virulent, resulting in complete or abortive symptoms of the disease.

Another classification of adverse events following vaccination distinguishes:

Local postvaccinal reactions (redness, swelling, pain at the injection site) occurring particularly often after the administration of live vaccines (10.8% -15.5% of reports) [15]

 Generalized postvaccinal reactions (fever, malaise, muscle pain, joint pain, headaches, flu-like symptoms, local lymphadenopathy, allergic reactions) – usually disappear spontaneously within 3 days of vaccination, do not require treatment [16].

 Early postvaccinal complications – anaphylactic reaction, described in one in about 1 million of vaccinated individuals, occurs most often after immunization against typhoid, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella [16].

 Late and long-term complications – determined by different immunological mechanisms, occur most often after the administration of preparations containing live micro-organisms (e.g., flaccid paralysis after an oral poliovirus vaccine OPV – 10 individuals annually per 1 million people vaccinated) [16].

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Neurologic adverse events vaccination 131

Reports in many Polish and foreign medical journals lead us to conclude that postvaccinal complications among children can be observed in sporadic cases and that they are disproportionate to the benefits of vaccination in the elimination of dangerous diseases in childhood. This article focuses on several aspects related to overall immunization, including: the physiological development of the immune system, the possible immune system responses following vaccination, the site of vaccination in the natural course of infectious diseases and the current immunization schedule in Poland compared with other countries. The immune system in terms of vaccination

Physiology

Immune system functioning in neonates is characterized by complex mechanisms to adapt to the changed conditions of postnatal life. In infancy and early childhood, the individual components of specific and nonspecific immunity gradually develop and mature [17]. The humoral immunity of neonates is acquired and is associated with active transport of maternal immunoglobulin G through the placenta (starting from the end of the first trimester of pregnancy) mainly in the last 5-6 weeks of pregnancy. A neonate’s humoral response is therefore a state of physiological dysimmunoglobulinemia, i.e. it has an average concentration of its own IgG, minimal or low concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD [13, 14]. The level of maternal IgG gradually decreases, while the level of the child’s IgG increases reaching approximately 60% of the adult level after 12 months. In the 2-3 month of life, an intersection of curves takes place – the declining curve of maternal IgG concentration and the increasing curve of infant IgG concentration (graph). The infant’s IgG level is the lowest then [18].

Levels of antibodies in the blood serum of the fetus, neonate and infant [18] From a physiological point of view, according to Jakóbisiak’s [18] classification, the group of secondary immunodeficiency disorders includes conditions such as pregnancy and conditions associated with age (neonates, the elderly). Premature babies are a specific group, whose shortened period of maternal IgG influx leads to compromised anti-infective immunity. On the other hand, according to the author, on account of the existing maternal antibodies, vaccination against certain microorganisms administered shortly after birth does not lead to long-lasting immunity. It should be emphasized that the immune system reaches full immunoregulatory and defensive maturity at about 3 years of age [19]. It is well established that early-life immune responses are weaker and of shorter duration than elicited in immunologically mature hosts. Consequently, vaccine efficacy in early infancy (particularly in the first 6 months of age) is limited [20]. Thus, in oder to provoke and sustain an adequate B-cell immune response in a neonate, strong immune adjuvants and repeated closely spaced booster doses are needed [21]. The problem with this approach is two-fold. First, experimental evidence clearly shows, that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants, or repeated stimulation of the immune system by the same antigen can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity [22]. Second,while it is generally accepted that potency and toxicity of immune adjuvants must be adequately balanced so that the necessary immune stimulation is achived with minimal side effects, in practical terms, such a balance is very difficult to achieve. This is because the same adjuvantedmediated mrchanisms which drive to the immunestimulatory effects of vaccines have the capacity to provoke a variety of adverse reactions [23, 24] Vaccinations and immune response A vaccine is defined as a biological preparation containing antigen(s) of microorganisms that cause specific stimulation of the immune response after administration which protects against infection by this microorganism, with safety precautions taken during administration [18, 25].

A vaccine may contain:

  • 1. Microorganism antigens – bacterial or viral (live-attenuated, dead), isolated antigens – proteins, polysaccharides, DNA and anatoxins (diphtheria, tetanus) with retained immunegenicity but devoid of pathogenic properties,
  • 2. Suspension: water, physiological saline, substrate protein, e.g. egg white, gelatin,
  • 3. Preservatives: thiomerosal (mercury), antibiotics, phenol,
  • 4. Adjuvants, the aim of which is to enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine – aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate are the most commonly used.

Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 132

According to the literature [18], it is believed that vaccines containing live microorganisms are among the most effective means of inducing immunity against infectious disease. Attenuated microorganisms (viruses, BCG mycobacteria) retain the ability to replicate in host cells, which stimulates cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc, CD8 +) that destroy cells infected by them. The way of impact of isolated antigens or antigens derived from whole inactivated microorganisms is different. In this case, a stimulation of the auxiliary Th (CD4+) lymphocyte response takes place. Th lymphocytes contain two distinct – in functional terms – subpopulations: Th1 and Th2. According to Jakóbisiak – with some simplification – it can be assumed that the Th1 lymphocytes perform auxiliary functions in cell-type response and Th2 in humoral response [18]. The mechanism of immune response to various types of vaccine antigens, especially to antigens in multicomponent vaccines, is not fully understood and researched.

The vaccination-stimulated Th2 pathway responsible for the production of antibodies, the pathway which predominates in neonates and infants, in the absence of an adequate balance of Th1 response may lead to the development of allergic reactions [25]. This is symptomatic of the fact that allergic diseases are often referred to as “an epidemic of the XXI century” [26, 27]. As stated in the “European Allergy White Paper”, the clinical symptoms of allergy are present in 35% of the population of developed countries, and according to the ISAAC (The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) as many as 40%. Allergy is one of the major health problems on par with AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, injuries and accidents [28 – 30]. According to other authors, a restriction of the natural environmental infections stimulating Th1 response as well as change of their natural course resulting from mass immunization, an increase in general hygiene and widespread use of antibiotics (“Hygiene Theory”) inhibiting and delaying the adjustment of Th2/Th1 could theoretically also contribute to the growth of the risk of allergic diseases [31, 32]. A confirmation of this thesis was the study of Swiss children from anthroposoic backgrounds, in which significantly less atopy was observed than in children from other backgrounds. In this group, a positive correlation of diseases with the MMR vaccination was found [33]. In addition, in a series of papers, Silverberg et al. have shown that wild type varicella zoster virus infection (WTVZV), but not varicella vaccine (VV), protects against asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) in young children [34, 35]. The protective effect of WTVZV was attributed to its beneficial effect on stimulating Th1-primed immune responses and suppressing allergy-promoting Th2 responses. According to Silverberg et al. [34], ―The introduction of widespread varicella vaccination and resultant decline of WTVZV in the United States may be a contributing factor in the increased prevalence of AD [atopic dermatitis] over the past few decades.‖ Notably, other than not providing an effective stimulus for proper immune system development, recent research has shown that vaccines are actually capable of disrupting it. For example, annual vaccination against influenza has been shown to hamper the development of virusspecific CD8+ T-cell immunity in children [36] From the above observations it is clear that the proper functioning of the immune system involves a delicate balance between the two arms of the immune equilibrium (Th1/Th2), and its tilt to either side can be harmful for the body [30]. Furthermore, it appears that the necessary Th1/Th2 balance is better provided by natural challenges (i.e., in a form of relatively benign childhood diseases such as chickenpox and mumps) rather than vaccination. Recent research by Singh of the International Institute for Brain Research in the USA confirm the veracity of this statement. In the study, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were analyzed in terms of viral and autoimmune markers in Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 133 patients with autism compared with a group of healthy children – both groups were vaccinated with MMR (measles, mumps, rubella vaccine) [37]. This is the first of this type of research examining a positive correlation between viral factors (viral serology) and autoimmune factors (brain autoantibodies). It was found that higher levels of measles antibodies were accompanied by Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) autoantibodies in children with autism (Figure.3). A similar serology was found in CSF. Fig. 3. Correlations between MMR antibodies and MBP autoantibodies in autistic and healthy children. (Source: [37] Singh VK. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 2009, 21, 3,148-161; with permission: Healthy Impressions) The results in Table 1 show a comparative study of antibodies against other viral pathogens in the studied population of children which confirmed the pathogenic role of the measles strain.

Table 1. Blood serum levels of antiviral antibodies in healthy and autistic children Virus antibody (units)

Measle s Mu mps Rub ella HH V-6 CMV EBV EA EBN A VC A

  • Normal children 3.3±0. 1 2.5± 0.2 3.2± 0.2 1.6± 0.6 0.28 ±0.4 0.5±0 .04 1.2 ±0.2 1.8± 0.3 (n=32) (n= 30) (n=4 5) (n= 37) (n=3 0) (n=4 4) (n=4 4) (n= 44)
  • Autistic children 4.2±0. 1* 2.6± 0.3 3.3 ±0.1 2.2± 5.3 0.23+ 0.3 0.6 ±0.04 0.9± 0.2 1.4± 0.2 (n=87) (n= 32) (n=7 4) (n= 45) (n=3 0) (n=4 4) (n=4 4) (n= 44) p value .003* .76 .98 .5 .37 .76 .21 .15

(Source: [37] Singh VK. Phenotypic expression of autoimmune autistic disorder (AAD): A major subset of autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 2009, 21, 3,148-161; with permission: Healthy Impressions)

CMV: cytornegalovirus; EA: early antigen; EBNA: Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen; EBV: Epstein-Barr virus; HHV-6: human herpesvirus-6; VCA: viral capsid antigen; *Student t test was used to evaluate significance at a p value < 0.05 Significantly elevated levels of cytokines – IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ (factors triggering autoimmune response) – and acute phase proteins were also found in patients [37].

According to the authors of this study, subtle changes in the child’s developing brain caused by an autoimmune reaction, changes in the myelin sheath, may ultimately lead to impairment Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 134 of higher brain functions such as speech, communication, social interaction, as well as other neurological symptoms occurring in children with autism. In this study, the measles viruses were researched, but under the immunization program children also receive vaccinations with simultaneous administration of several viral components. What then occurs in the brain of a child? Presently, there are no studies in this area.

In an earlier study concerning postvaccinal adverse events of the immune system, Mannhalter et al. [38] presented an analysis of T lymphocyte (Th1/Th2) subpopulations in healthy adults before and after the administration of a vaccine containing the tetanus toxin. The result was a decrease in the Th1/Th2 ratio after vaccination, with maximum intensity 3 to 14 days after injection. These reports present a picture of neuroimmune disorders which may be the result of vaccinations carried out on an increasingly wider scale. A clear answer to this hypothesis would require both large-scale epidemiological studies as well as in-depth laboratory research. In Poland, multi-antigen combination vaccines are commonly administered at full cost with parental consent. Most often children are immunized at the same time with: diphtheria and tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigen, polio and H.influenzae (Infanrix-IPV+Hib, Pentaxim vaccines) or with an additional antigen of hepatitis B virus (Infanrix hexa vaccine). These vaccinations are repeated from the second month of life 3 times every 6-8 weeks. The recommended vaccinations against rotavirus and pneumococcal (2-3 doses) are also proposed to children under 6 months of age. Together with the tuberculosis and hepatitis B vaccinations administered in the first 24h of life, an infant receives 24-26 doses of xenogenic antigens. According to Tsumiyama et al. [39] systemic autoimmunity appears to be the inevitable consequence of over-stimulating the host’s immune ‘system’ by repeated immunization with antigen. Indeed, in adults multiple vaccinations have been associated with a variety of autoimmune phenolmena [40 – 42], yet children are regularly exposed to a much higher burden of vaccines than adults under the assumption that such exposures are safe [43] . Vaccinations as an important “training” for the immune system lower its threshold of defense responses, which is a measure to prevent the development of infectious diseases. However, a question arises: how will the not fully mature, still developing immune system of a healthy child and the still forming central nervous system respond to such intense stimulation? Is it able to correctly respond with the same protective effect to so many different stimuli? Do the multi-antigen vaccine side effects change compared to the previously used vaccinations and how? Thus far, these questions lack clear answers. Nonetheless, it is important to emphasize that a burgeoning body of evidence shows that immune molecules play integral roles in CNS development, affecting processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synaptic connectivity and synaptic plasticity [44 – 46]. Despite the dogma that peripheral immune responses do not affect CNS function, substantial evidence points exactly to the contrary [44, 47, 48]. Thus, it is not reasonable to assume that manipulation of the immune system through an increasing number of vaccinations during critical periods of brain development will not result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes [43, 49] Neurological symptoms following vaccination

In recent years, attention has been brought to the mercury contained in vaccines as a component with toxic and allergic properties. The mercury compound is found in organic combinations in the form of sodium salt – thimerosal (sodium ethylmercuriothiosalicylate, merthiolate). The incidence of allergy to this compound is variously estimated from 13% in the Netherlands to 21% in Austria. Vaccinations are a primary cause of the initial allergic reactions to thimerosal [50]. Mercury’s neurotoxicity (accumulation in the brain), cardiotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity are mentioned as its toxic activity. It causes, among others, developmental disorders in children and neurodegenerative diseases in adults [7]. According to researchers [51, 52], a manifold incidence increase of psychoneurological diseases such as autism, ADHD, mental retardation, epilepsy and others have been observed all over the world over the past twenty years. As stated, from the 1990s new vaccines for infants containing thimerosal began to be used in America. In the DTP, Hib and Hep B vaccines, children received a dose of 62.5 ug of mercury, which is 125-fold more than the dose considered safe (0.1ug/kg/day). These reports were the reason that Scandinavian countries already prohibited the use of mercury in 1990 [53]. In 2005, a paper was published which describes the sudden death (SUD – Sudden Unexpected Death) of 19 infants within a few hours/days after vaccination with two hexavalent vaccines (DTP-Hib-HepB-IPV). The healthy prior to vaccination children died as a result of postvaccinal cerebral and lung edema and heart attacks. As the authors conclude, despite the lack of direct evidence for a causal relationship of the described SUDs with vaccination, it is a signal that brings to attention the need to monitor the course of vaccination and its complications [54].Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 135

In another study from 2004, Geier et al. [12] confirmed through epidemiological research the direct relationship between increasing doses of thimerosal and the incidence of autism in children in the US from the late 1980s through the mid- 1990s. In addition, there was a potential correlation between the number of primary pediatric measlescontaining vaccines (MMR) administered and the prevalence of autism during the 1980s. Geier et al. [12] also found a statistically significant odds ratios for the development of autism following increasing doses of mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines (birth cohorts: 1985 and 1990-1995) in comparison to a baseline measurement (birth cohort: 1984). The contribution of thimerosal from childhood vaccines (>50% effect) was greater than that of the MMR vaccine on the prevalence of autism observed in the study. In Poland, according to the documents “Characteristics of Pharmaceuticals”, there are currently several permitted vaccines with significant thimerosal (THIM) content. These are: Euvax (Hepatitis B, LG Life Sciences, Korean manufacture) – 0.01% THIM-50μg/dose, DT (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, Td (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, DTP (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, D,d (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose, TT (Biomed, Krakow) – 50μg/dose [4, 55]. The frequency of observed reactions and complications depend on the general condition, especially neurological, of the child, the age, immunological resistance status as well as family and genetic load. In the literature, neurological symptoms are usually connected with the pertussis component of the vaccines, including: cerebral cry, according to Cody, occurs in 1:1000 of vaccinated subjects; seizures – mild, feverish – triggered by the pertussis endotoxin, in 10% of vaccinated subjects the convulsions occur without elevated body temperature, and severe seizures occur according to Waller et al. in 1 in 106,000 children [25]. In serious complications, such as encephalitis (about 2.9/10,000,00 of those vaccinated with DTP), encephalopathy (1:140,000 – 1:300,000 of the vaccinated), which may result in mental retardation, recurrent seizures, epilepsy – particularly myoclonic and Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, changes in the central nervous system comparable to those which occur in the course of meningitis and encephalitis were reported. In the early stages, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination outbreaks were observed, then myelin atrophy with intact neuron axial fiber, degenerated microglia and macrophage cells. Some experimental studies suggest the pertussis toxin, which through the membrane receptors causes inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction and induces activity of excitatory neurotransmitters [56, 57]. In 2010, a case of a 6-month-old previously healthy boy admitted to hospital on day 6 after vaccination with DTwP (whole cell) was described. The child was in a coma, hypotonia, with focal clonic seizures. MRI of the central nervous system using proton spectroscopy revealed acute necrotizing encephalopathy [58]. Previously, epileptic seizures in children with asymptomatic CMV infection which occurred after vaccination with DTwP and OPV had also been described. In the case of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, DTaP (acellular) and IPV (inactivated) vaccinations are recommended [59]. As stated in the Polish literature, acellular vaccines are much better tolerated than whole cell – the risk of fever after the first dose is reduced by over 99%, the risk of hypotonic-hyporesponsive episodes by 56%, similar to seizures, and the risk of inconsolable crying after the first dose is reduced by 87% [4]. According to the current vaccination schedule in Poland, infants receive the first three doses of DTwP in the first 6-8 weeks of life every 6-8 weeks, the 4th dose in the 16th-18th month of life, and a DTaP booster at 6 years of age. Given the often reported neurological complications after whole-cell pertussis (DTwP, DTP) vaccine, most developed countries – European and the US – have introduced changes in their immunization schedules and the safer acellular (DTaP) vaccines are administered to children. Of these countries, the only exceptions are: Bulgaria, Malta and Poland. In Poland, the safe vaccine is paid in full.

Other neurological complications associated with the administered vaccination are listed, among others, as follows:

  • multiple sclerosis after hepatitis B vaccine [60],
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome – after vaccination against influenza, hepatitis, meningitis C, polio and HPV vaccines [61-65],
  • transverse myelitis as a result of vaccination against cholera, typhoid, polio, and influenza,
  • flaccid paralysis, meningitis, encephalitis, convulsions and facial palsy after live polio vaccine [65, 66],
  • rapid progression of retinopathy in premature infants after BCG vaccination [67].

Monitoring In the case of AEFI, the obligation of notification was described in article 21 of the Preventing and fighting infections and infectious diseases in humans Act. According to the Act, a physician who recognizes or suspects the occurrence of AEFI is required, within 24 hours after concluding the suspicion, to notify the State Sanitary Inspector of the suspected case [3]. In order for that to be possible, the child’s guardian must also be accurately informed about the adverse symptoms following vaccination that may occur, then report the problem to the doctor or nurse who will take further steps.

There was an attempt to trace the actual scale of the adverse events following vaccination reported by nurses and doctors. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 136  The monitoring system was introduced in Poland in 1996 and is based on the WHO recommendations. In the Zieliński study, the number of AEFI reported in 1996-2000 from different provinces was analyzed and clear differences regarding the frequency of recorded entries were found. As the authors write, “they met astonishing examples of ignorance of the medical staff, including specialists, in their duty to report the AEFI” in their epidemiological practice [68]. On the other hand, there is no real possibility of laboratory tests to confirm a causal relationship between the clinical picture and the used vaccine. For example, only a few research laboratories in Poland, of the highest reference level, posses the microbiological methods for distinguishing mycobacteria from the BCG vaccine from other species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain [69]. There are also no reports in the literature (except those listed above) of research work in immunology in the context of reactions following vaccination. It should also be noted that in more developed countries, there is little incentive for doing appropriate follow-up and laboratory tests on individuals who suffered serious adverse reactions following vaccinations [70]. The reason for such oversight is likely due to the fact that historically, vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic by the regulatory agencies [68] The resulting lack of evidence of causality between vaccinations and serious adverse outcomes has thus been filled with an assumption that vaccines are safe [71]. Natural history of infectious diseases/ immunizations Based on statistics from the Federal Statistics Office in Wiesbaden, Buchwald published a paper containing long-term observations of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. It is interesting that in recent decades a decrease of infectious diseases was generally reported, which took place before the introduction of inoculations against these diseases. According to a 2002 report from Lancet Infectious Diseases [72] ―the weight of evidence collectively suggests that personal and environmental hygiene reduces the spread of infection‖ and ―Thus results from this review demonstrate that there is a continued, measurable, positive effect of personal and community hygiene on infectious‖. The same report showed that the crude death rate from infectious diseases decreased to nearly negligible levels long before introduction of universal vaccination practices. Currently, the developed countries introduce increasingly complex vaccination schedules. Forty years ago, children were immunized against five diseases (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, smallpox), today this number has increased to eleven. At the same time, as mentioned previously, repeatedly administered multi-antigen vaccines are recommended. Doctors and researchers point to the worsening state of health of the child population since the 1960s, which coincided with increasingly introduced vaccinations. Allergic diseases, including asthma, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and many neurological dysfunctions – difficulty in learning, ADD (attention deficit disorder), ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), seizures, and autism – are chronic conditions, to which attention has been brought [73]. Proposals for modification of the vaccination schedule European countries have different models of vaccination that have been modified in recent decades. In Scandinavian countries, which have the lowest infant mortality, vaccinations are voluntary and infants receive their first vaccination at 3 months of age. In the first year of life, they receive 9 recommended vaccinations, and at 18 months – MMR. The acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) is used, as well as IPV. BCG and Hepatitis B vaccines are administered to children from high risk groups. Similar vaccination schedules exist in other European countries, where the vaccination of neonates was abandoned and a ban on the use of thimerosal in vaccines was introduced [4, 74]. Note also that Scandinavian countries have the lowest rates of autism compared to other developed countries in which children are vaccinated much earlier and with greater number of vaccines [49]. Professor Majewska – a neurobiologist, Director of the Marie Curie Chairs Program at the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology of the Nervous System in Warsaw – together with pediatricians, drafted a proposal for changes to the vaccination program in Poland, which is based on an analysis of programs in other European Union countries. The propositions are as follows:

1. Eliminate thimerosal from all vaccines.

2. Discontinue the immunization of infants with the hepatitis B vaccine (vaccinate only newborns at high risk, i.e. of infected mothers).

3. Discontinue BCG vaccination of neonates (use only in regions where the percentage of TB patients is over 40 per 100 thousand).

4. Begin vaccination from 4 months old in the remaining group of children.

5. Discontinue the whole cell pertussis vaccine.

6. Give a maximum of three types of vaccines in one day.

7. Discontinue the administration of live virus vaccines or give them one at a time at safe intervals.

8. Make monovalent vaccines accessible.

9. Commitment of the doctor administering the vaccine to conduct a preliminary interview with the parents about allergies, asthma and other autoimmune diseases and postvaccinal complications in family members, allowing them to predict whether a given child may experience severe postvaccinal reactions. Such a child should have an individual, very careful vaccination program developed.

10. Monitor the health status of children after vaccination in order to notice life- or healththreatening conditions in time.

11. Create a national program for compulsory registration of postvaccinal complications and deaths. These data should be reported to the WHO and information about complications should be provided in the child’s health record book [51]. Prog Health Sci 2012, Vol 2 , No1 Neurologic adverse events vaccination 138

CONCLUSIONS

Despite the assurances of the necessity and safety of vaccinations, there are more and more questions and doubts, which both physicians and parents are waiting to be clarified. This paper describes several aspects of the immunization program of children. It includes:

  • the physiological development of the immune system,
  • the immunization schedule adopted in Poland in comparison with other countries,
  • adverse reactions and complications following vaccination described in scientific publications,
  • the natural course of infectious diseases in conjunction with the vaccination programs implemented
  • and the problem of reporting adverse reactions following vaccination by medical personnel and parents.

The proposal for changes in vaccination in Poland cited at the end of this paper is, according to the authors, part of the answer to the concerns and doubts. A second part would be extensive neuroimmunological research confirming or excluding the relationship of vaccines with the reported adverse events (early, late/long-term) and chronic diseases whose upward trend has been observed in recent decades in children. It seems that it would be worthwhile to apply the precautionary principle – the ethical principle (from 1988) according to which if there is a probable, although poorly known, risk of adverse effects of new technology, it is better not to implement it rather than risk uncertain but potentially very harmful consequences.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to Mrs. Ursula HumienikDworakowska for the translation of this article.

Conflicts of interest

We declare that we have no conflicts of interest.

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